Breaking News
Home / Author Archives: Iqra Riaz-Ud-Din

Author Archives: Iqra Riaz-Ud-Din

Niccolò Machiavelli

Niccolò Machiavelli

It’s good to be bad! Introduction Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, popularly known as Machiavelli, was a 16th-century Florentine philosopher. He is known primarily for his political ideas but his philosophical legacy remains enigmatic. His most famous book ‘The Prince’ is considered his magnum opus. Machiavelli stood out from his contemporaries because he believed that politics and morality should be ... Read More »

The role of HRM in New Public Management

The role of HRM in New Public Management

For most, human resources management (HRM) is better known within the context of private institutions. HRM generally involves proper procurement, evaluation, recruitment and training of job candidates or applicants. In addition to this, the HR Department is tasked to administer and oversee benefit programmes and manage employees. This is seen every day in most private companies and is an integral ... Read More »

Military and Politics in Pakistan

Military is a formidable political actor in Pakistan, capable of influencing the nature and direction of political change. Pakistan’s reins have effectively been in the hands of the army for more than thirty-eight years since the country’s independence in 1947. Besides, it dominated the political system behind the scenes for more than two decades. Hence, there were only few intermittent ... Read More »

Crisis of National Integration in Pakistan

Analyzing the Problems and Issues of Federalism National Integration/Federalism Federation is a form of government in which power is constitutionally divided among different federating units in such a way that each one exercises responsibility for a particular set of functions and maintains its own institutions to describe these functions. Federalism establishes two sets of government: federal or central authority, and ... Read More »


DEFINITION A representative bureaucracy is defined as a public service whose members reflect the demographic composition of the population it serves and to which its policies apply. To be truly representative, a public service would include members of significant sectors of the population throughout its workforce, including senior decision-making positions, not just in lower rank jobs. Pitkin provided the simplest ... Read More »

“COMMUNICATION” The language of leadership

Definition According to Keyton, communication “is the process of transmitting information and common understanding from one person to another.” The definition underscores the fact that unless a common understanding results from the exchange of information, there is no communication. “Understanding” is the essence of communication. This only happens when there is an intention of understanding and being understood by those ... Read More »


Conflict is a constant in modern life and this is also the case in the delivery of services by the public administration. It occurs due to diversity of views, difference of opinion and/or conflicting interests. It may also arise among employees and between public administration and service-users and service-providers. Disagreements, difference of opinion or attitude, needs and views on the ... Read More »


Definition Strategic management can be defined as the art and science of formulating, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives. Strategic management focuses on integrating management, marketing, finance/accounting, production/operations, research and development and information systems to achieve organizational success. Sometimes the term strategic management is used to refer to strategy formulation, implementation and evaluation, ... Read More »