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Home / Author Archives: M. Shahid Rafique

Author Archives: M. Shahid Rafique


There is no blinking at the fact that human rights have played an important role in promotion of a good society by making the concepts of humanity and human dignity popular. Throughout the human history, autocratic governments have violated the fundamental concept of human dignity, and rights of human beings were violated on a large scale. Human rights are important ... Read More »


The movement that is taken for granted Historical development of feminism is divided into several periods. These periods are marked by differences in approach toward empowerment of women. Some periods are characterized by a relative absence of feminist thought, while others by sustained growth of feminist criticism and of activism. This rise and fall of feminist thought over a period ... Read More »

Late Marriages and Reproductive Health

Late marriage is a growing phenomenon, especially in the urban areas of Pakistan, due to multiple socioeconomic factors. In our society, this problem consequently affects women in a variety of ways and impedes their efforts on getting settled in their married life. The reproductive health of married women gets affected the most; thereby complicating things for them to survive in ... Read More »

Feminism and Wave Analogy

The word feminism originated from the French word “feminisime” in the nineteenth century. Interestingly, it was used either as a medical term to describe the feminisation of male body or to describe women with masculine traits. According to Jaggar(1983), a sociologist, when the word ‘feminism’ was used in the early part of the twentieth century, it was used only to ... Read More »

Double Standards

In societies, behaviour is generally governed by informal norms, rules and formal laws. The behaviour of people as well as of the society on the whole is different toward men and women. In feminist analysis, men are at the driving seat when it comes to defining the contents of formal and informal behavioural cultures. The contents defined by men are ... Read More »

Moser Framework: Policy Matrix

The WID/GAD (Women in Development/Gender and Development) policy matrix examines as to what policy approaches have been successfully used in the past regarding development of women. It also identifies the best policy matrix that can be applied in future to achieve the desired results. Moser, in this connection, has identified following five different approaches. Welfare: It is the earliest approach. ... Read More »

Rising cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

Rising cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

In July 2016, a report was presented at an international Aids conference held in Durban, South Africa. The report, which consisted of the findings of the meta-analysis coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington in Seattle, USA, should have rung alarm bells but it went largely unnoticed. It suggested that the prevalence ... Read More »

Sustainable Development Goals

Sustainable Development Goals

Third world countries lag far behind their counterparts in the developed world in terms of development primarily because of directionlessness and shortsightedness in the realm of policy formulation. In these countries, the development policies are, unfortunately, marred by a myopic thinking of getting re-elected just to stay in power; thus, true meanings of development are lost in the process. This ... Read More »

Impediments to Growth

Impediments to Growth

The progress and prosperity of a nation hinges on strong and inclusive political and economic institutions; other factors namely geography or culture may contribute in one way or the other but without strengthening the key institutions, development remains a pipe dream. Inclusive institutions bring best individuals to the forefront in the political and economic arenas by providing all with a ... Read More »