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How to attempt Optional papers

If a candidate quotes the well-known sociologist over a particular area of sociology, he can secure impressive marks. Every subject has its own peculiar nature and standing. Two subjects are never same in their textual styles. History subjects are always objective and based on events and occurrences while subjects like sociology, journalism, public administration, etc. are conceptual and subjective in ... Read More »

The Art of Attempting Paper

Galloping in the wrong direction might not work but a leap into the right path will definitely benefit you a lot. The written exam for CSS-2011 is drawing closer and the aspirants must be in a hurry to retain as much knowledge about different subjects as they can. This is precisely what I was indulging myself into while preparing for ... Read More »

World Order: Unipolar to Multipolar

History has witnessed cycles of rise and fall of civilisations, empires and regional as well as global powers. In past, military power was the only decisive factor in ‘balance of power’ among nations. Outline: 1.    Introduction 2.    Brief history of World Order 3.    United States’ Uni-polar Status 4.    Determinants of World Order a)    Economic strength b)    Military power c)    International ... Read More »

Crisis of Good Governance in Pakistan

An essay outline regarding the CSS and other competitive examinations relating to the topic of crisis or bad governance, essentials, causes and remedies. Introduction Good governance is a prerequisite for social harmony, public order, political stability, economic prosperity and certainty about future. It delivers the fruit of progress and development evenly to all and sundry. Good governance is required at ... Read More »


The real change will come when the social barriers will gradually disappear in order to eliminate gender discrimination. Discrimination is formulated when the balance is not found. Discrimination against women in Pakistan is matter of concern these days. Unfortunately, mostly female children are exposed to the gender discrimination and their rights are violated. Women who are living in urban areas ... Read More »


There is no single universally recognised definition of terrorism because; one man’s terrorist is often another man’s freedom fighter or hero. Terrorism is perhaps the most widely used term in today’s world. But at the same time, it is perhaps the most complicated phenomenon to explain and the most difficult menace to contain. There is no single universally recognised definition ... Read More »

The Creation of Pakistan and the Quaid’s Vision

For centuries, the Indian Subcontinent has been a multi-religious, multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society In his comprehensive lecture arranged by World Times on causes and failure of democracy in Pakistan delivered at the Superior University, Qayyum Nizami discussed with the help of historical evidence and relevant quotations, the Two Nation Theory and its role in the Pakistan Movement, with special reference ... Read More »

Pakistan’s Foreign Policy

The foreign policy of a nation is the face that it wears to the outside world. Shamshad Ahmad Khan, Pakistan’s former foreign secretary and veteran diplomat, is now a leading political analyst, who through his writings and lectures frequently expresses his views about the problems and challenges facing our country. In a recent lecture arranged by World Times on Pakistan ... Read More »

The problems confronting Balochistan

The grievances of the Baloch people are not without some genuine reasons. The renowned columnist and bureaucrat Orya Maqbool Jan spent several years in Balochistan, serving at highly important administrative posts. In a scholarly lecture arranged by World Times delivered at the Superior University on Balochistan issue and he discussed the current turbulent situation prevailing in the province, along with ... Read More »