As what geographers have estimated, about twenty percent of the earth’s surface is occupied by deserts. A majority of us view deserts as one unique kind of landscape – areas with little or no rainfalls.
In actual fact, there are differences between the deserts, though in varying degrees. While it is common for laymen like us to see deserts as rocky or covered with gravel or pebbles, there are some where large sand dunes inhabit. Despite the fact that rainfall is minimal, temperatures do change in deserts, ranging from seasonal ones to daily changes where extreme hotness and coldness are experienced in the day and night.
Unfavourable conditions in the deserts, especially the lack of water, have discouraged many living things from inhabiting these landscapes. Nevertheless, there are exceptionally surviving ones which through their superb tactics, have managed to live through and are still going strong. One such kind is the specialist annual plants which overcome seasonal temperature changes with their extremely short, active life cycles. In events of sudden rain, the plant seeds pullulate and grow very quickly to make full use of the rain water. Their flowers bloom and set seeds that ripen quickly in the hot sun too. Once the water runs dry, the mother plant dies, leaving behind the drought-resistant seeds, waiting patiently for the next rainy season to arrive.
The Cacti, a native in American deserts, adapts to the dry surroundings by having unique body structures. The plant has swollen stems to help store water that carries it through months. By having sharp pines instead of leaves, water loss through respiration is minimized. Besides, these pointed pines also help the plant ward off grazing animals, thus enhancing its survival period.
Besides plants, there are also animals with distinct surviving tactics in deserts too. For instance, Skinks (desert lizards) metabolize stored fats in their bulbous tails, producing water to supplement their needs, just like what camels do with the stored food in their humps during long journeys through deserts. Antelopes like the addax, have very low water needs and hence are able to tolerate the conditions in deserts, extracting moisture from the food they eat.
Finally, there are the sandgrouses (desert birds) which do not have special features to overcome the drought-like nature in deserts. Hence, to survive in these hot, dry deserts, they need to spend a large part of their time flying in search of waterholes.
Despite the dry conditions in the deserts, some plants and animals still manage to survive there. One of them is the specialist annual plants. Their short life cycles allow them to germinate, grow and produce seeds during short rainy seasons. These seeds are drought-resistant and are able to wait for the next rainy season before starting their life cycles again. The Cacti adapts to the dry weather by having swollen stems for water storage and pine-like leaves to minimize water loss through respiration. Skinks generate water from stored fats in their tails and antelopes which require very little water, survive in deserts by extracting water from food they eat. Finally, sandgrouse with no adaptive features turn to waterholes constantly for help.
The classical realist theory of international relations has long dominated both academic institutions and the American government. Even at the birth of the nation, early political thinkers, such as Alexander Hamilton, promoted a realist view of international relations and sought to influence the actions of the government based on this perspective. While the classical realist school of international relations is not entirely homogeneous in nature, there are certain premises that all classical realists share.
The primary principle underlying classical realism is a concern with issues of war and peace. Specifically, classical realists ask, what are the causes of war and what are the conditions of peace? The members of the classical realist school mainly attribute war and conflict to what is termed the security dilemma. In the absence of any prevailing global authority, each nation is required to address its own security needs. However, each nation’s quest for security – through military build-ups, alliances or territorial defences – necessarily unsettles other nations. These nations react to feelings of insecurity by engaging in their own aggressive actions, which leads other nations to react similarly, perpetuating the cycle.
It is important to note that for realists, unlike idealists or liberal internationalists, international conflict is a necessary consequence of the structural anarchy that nations find themselves in. Whereas other schools may see international conflict as the result of evil dictators, historical chance, flawed socio-political systems, or ignorance of world affairs, classical realists see war as the logical result of a system that by its nature lacks a true central authority.
Hand in hand with this view of conflict as an inevitable condition of the global power structure is the realists’ view of the nation as a unitary actor. Because classical realists see international relations as a continuing struggle for dominance, the nation cannot be viewed as a collection of individuals with disparate wants, goals and ideologies. The realist view requires the formulation of a national interest, which in its simplest terms refers to the nation’s ability to survive, maintain its security, and achieve some level of power relative to its competitors.
Realism is not without its critics, many of whom challenge the premise that war is the natural condition of international relations or that there can be a truly national interest. However, the realist school of international relations continues to shape foreign policy because of the successes it has had in describing real world interactions between nations.
Questions & Answers
Q.1: The formation of a national interest serves what function in the classical realist theory of war and peace, based on the passage?
Ans: Since national interest is a nation’s ability to survive, maintain its security, and achieve power against its competitors, it provides the necessary justification for the classical realist view of a continuous global power struggle.
Q.2: From the passage, members of the classical realist school would be least likely to support what?
Ans: According to classical realists, war is a logical result of a system that lacks a central authority. So, they would not support an international policy that seeks to reduce threats of war by providing aid to potential aggressor countries.
Q.3: Depending on the description provided in the passage, what would best support the classical realist theory of international conflict?
Ans: Since the world lacks a central authority to address conflicts, therefore, after the formation of an authoritative world court, wars are likely to decrease dramatically.
Q.4: The author most likely regards the classical realist theory of international relations with what?
Ans: In the given passage, the author seems more positive about realism and says that the success of the realist school of international relations in describing real world interactions between nations; so, he seems more inclined toward an experienced acceptance.
Q.5: According to the passage, what is the underlying principle of classic realism?
Ans: As per the passage, the underlying principle of classic realism is a concern with issues of war and peace”.
Inc: It is raining when I got home last night.
Cor: It was raining when I got home last night.
Inc: My sister is annoying today, but usually she is nice.
Cor: My sister is being annoying today, but usually she is nice.
Inc: I have not ate anything today.
Cor: I have not eaten anything today.
Inc: If I am a child, I would play outside.
Cor: If I were a child, I would play outside.
Inc: Everyone have seen that movie.
Cor: Everyone has seen that movie.
Inc: If we will be late, they will be angry.
Cor: It we are late, they will be angry.
Inc: My father is thinking that I should stop smoking.
Cor: My father thinks I should stop smoking.
Inc: Look! It is snow.
Cor: Look! It is snowing.
Inc: I fell asleep while I watched TV.
Cor: I fell asleep while I was watching TV.
Inc: I have lived in Canada since 10 months.
Cor: I have lived in Canada for 10 months.
Inc: There is a warm country.
Cor: It is a warm country. (or) That country is warm.
Inc: I have not an iPhone.
Cor: I do not have an iPhone.
Inc: I haven’t ever been to Korea.
Cor: I haven’t been to Korea. (or) I have never been to Korea.
Inc: The students have a good time in class today.
Cor: The students are having a good time in class today.
Inc: Amjad probably isn’t going to come to school tomorrow.
Cor: Amjad probably won’t come to school tomorrow.
Inc: If the world ended tomorrow, I will be very sad.
Cor: If the world ended tomorrow, I would be very sad.
Inc: He can speak Japanese because he was born in Canada.
Cor: He can speak Japanese even though/although he was born in Canada.
Inc: Salma afraid of snakes.
Cor: Salma is afraid of snakes.
Inc: Ali was not interested in the lesson because it was bored.
Cor: Ali was not interested in the lesson because it was boring.
1. Pest : Irksome : : Expert : ?
(a) Irrelevant (b) Scientist
(c) Proficient (d) Professor
2. Amnesia : Memory : : Paralysis : ?
(a) Movement (b) Limbs
(c) Handicapped (d) Legs
3. Meningitis : Brain : : Cirrhosis : ?
(a) Lungs (b) Brain
(c) Liver (d) Heart
4. Book : Publisher : : Film : ?
(a) Producer (b) Director
(c) Distributor (d) Writer
5. Forecast : Future : : Regret : ?
(a) Present (b) Atone
(c) Past (d) Sins
6. Influenza : Virus : : Typhoid : ?
(a) Bacillus (b) Parasite
(c) Protozoa (d) Bacteria
7. Haemoglobin : Iron : : Chlorophyll : ?
(a) Copper (b) Magnesium
(c) Cobalt (d) Calcium
8. Radio : Listener : : Film : ?
(a) Producer (b) Actor
(c) Viewer (d) Director
9. Spider : Insect : : Crocodile : ?
(a) Reptile (b) Mammal
(c) Frog (d) Carnivore
10. Foresight : Prevision : : Insomnia : ?
(a) Treatment (b) Disease
(c) Sleeplessness (d) Unrest
11. USA : Congress : : Iran : ?
(a) Althing (b) Storting
(c) Majlis (d) Cortes
12. Carbon : Diamond : : Corundum : ?
(a) Pearl (b) Sapphire
(c) Garnet (d) Ruby
13. Funk : Vitamins : : Curie : ?
(a) Uranium (b) Radium
(c) Radioactivity (d) Photography
14. Virology : Virus : : Semantics : ?
(a) Amoeba (b) Language
(c) Nature (d) Society
15. Pituitary : Brain : : Thymus : ?
(a) Larynx (b) Spinal Cord
(c) Throat (d) Chest
16. Novelty : Oldness : : Newness : ?
(a) Culture (b) Discovery
(c) Model (d) Antiquity
17. Aeroplane : Cockpit : : Train : ?
(a) Wagon (b) Coach
(c) Compartment (d) Engine
18. Cobbler : Leather : : Weaver : ?
(a) Cotton (b) Jute
(c) Fibre (d) Thread
19. Lion : Cub : : Cat : ?
(a) Calf (b) Duckling
(c) Kitten (d) Cub
20. Calcium : Bone : : Retinol : ?
(a) Nerves (b) Eyes
(c) Skin (d) Blood
(a) Garrulous (b) Bombastic
(c) Verbose (d) Ambiguous
ANT: Reticent, Taciturn
(a) Soothing (b) Gaudy
(c) Frightening (d) Talkative
ANT: Drab, Tasteful
(a) Modest (b) Vengeful
(c) Awkward (d) Cautious
ANT: Merciful, Magnanimous
(a) Radiating (b) Dull
(c) Bloodless (d) Elaborate
ANT: Dark, Dull
(a) Unsteady (b) Religious
(c) Treacherous (d) Humane
ANT: Faithful, Loyal
(a) Miserly (b) Lascivious
(c) Philanthropist (d) Obese
ANT: Scraggy, Emaciated
(a) Censorious (b) Punctilious
(c) Copious (d) Capable
ANT: Forgiving, Easy-going
(a) Satiated (b) Asinine
(c) Foolish (d) Miserly
ANT: Intelligent, Sensible
(a) Pale (b) Scared
(c) Dull (d) Weak
ANT: Flushed, Rosy
(a) Complex (b) Sulky
(c) Docile (d) Boorish
ANT: Cheerful, Happy
(a) Discussion (b) Diatribe
(c) Scarecrow (d) Controversial
ANT: Praise, Compliment
(a) Eloquence (b) Elegant
(c) Popularity (d) Adamance
ANT: Maladroit, Gauche
(a) Abrupt (b) Polite
(c) Taciturn (d) Pleasing
ANT: Verbose, Rambling
(a) Profuse (b) Panicked
(c) Conciliatory (d) Incorrigible
ANT: Contrite, Repentant
(a) Speedy (b) Obscure
(c) Sophisticated (d) Flamboyant
ANT: Unadorned, Unostentatious
(a) Hell (b) Cursing
(c) Fury (d) Wrath
ANT: Paradise, Heaven
(a) Fussy (b) Gloomy
(c) Curious (d) Unnatural
ANT: Frolicsome, Jovial
(a) Yielding (b) Talkative
(c) Credulous (d) Ingenious
ANT: Cynical, Suspicious
(a) Courteous (b) Arriviste
(c) Negligent (d) Jittery
ANT: Blue blood, Opulent
(a) Intriguing (b) Harmonious
(c) Judicious (d) Knowledgeable
ANT: Ignorant, Ill-educated
(a) Secrecy (b) Intelligence
(c) Ardour (d) Astuteness
ANT: Indifference, Apathy
(a) Perform (b) Precondition
(c) Recite (d) Reciprocate
ANT: Avoid, Ignore
(a) Gifted (b) Shrewd
(c) Ludicrous (d) Sensible
ANT: Intelligent, Canny
(a) Petrified (b) Harmless
(c) Stupid (d) Innocent
ANT: Harmful, Obnoxious
(a) Meticulous (b) Scandalous
(c) Sedative (d) Livid
ANT: Nonchalant, Apathetic
(a) Censure (b) Autumnal
(c) Lament (d) Conciliate
ANT: Celebrate, Rejoice
(a) Exhibit (b) Perform
(c) Challenge (d) Repent
ANT: Acknowledge, Accept
(a) Transparent (b) Occluded
(c) Paralyzed (d) Amputated
ANT: Opaque, Muddy
(a) Inoffensive (b) Pellucid
(c) Painkiller (d) Luculent
ANT: Vexing, Galling
(a) Censuring (b) Sparkling
(c) Dissenting (d) Enervated
ANT: Flat, Depressed