Culture has two aspects i.e. formal and ideological, the former being the expression of the latter. They together form a social structure, causing a change in the parent organism. Cultural problems are linked with social problems which can be solved only in the social context.
1. BRISTLE: Flare up
2. DELUGE: None of these
3. TIRADE: Angry speech
4. QUASI Seeming
5. VILIFY Defame
6. RIGMAROLE: None of these
7. DEIGN: Condescend
8. PROLETARIAT: Labouring class
9. LUDICROUS: Comic
10. MALEFIC: Baleful
11. LANGUID: Vigorous
12. HIGH ‘STRUNG: Calm
13. ABRIDGEMENT: None of these
14. METTLE: Cowardice
15. CAJOLE: Coax
16. CELIBACY: Wedlock
18. IRRESOLUTE: Sturdy
19. ANNEXATION: Contraction
20. INCUR: None of these
Culture has two aspects i.e. formal and ideological, the former being the expression of the latter. They together form a social structure, causing a change in the parent organism. Cultural problems are linked with social problems which can be solved only in the social context. Countries coming under European Imperialism suffered culturally. The progress remained confined to selected people. The feudal and tribal societies remained constantly at war with one other. This process was enhanced by imperialism. There was fragmentation and division. Newly liberated countries inherited this structure. Countries under European Imperialism developed a feudal system or were at a primitive stage. Their social and cultured process stopped with foreign occupation. (110 Words)
Title: Culture and Imperialism
1. According to Confucius, human society does not progress naturally. Rulers and people had certain ideas which they admired but were not able to achieve much. Human history shows that rulers and people have been struggling for what they did achieve. Also, the human society is constantly evolving.
2. The ideas of Confucius really helped China to become stable and strong. He aimed at creating a stable society and achieving excellence in various fields. The people of China, under the influence of his thoughts, made wonderful progress.
3. The author thinks that Confucius’ system deserves respect and admiration because the system given by him was so realistic and comprehensive that the Chinese, acting on that system, became a great nation.
4. There was no mention of God, spirituality, divine element or the supernatural in his system. His system was based upon pure reason, good sense and ethics. So it was not a religion.
5. Confucius’ ideal of a gentleman is biased on rationalism, wisdom and good sense. This ideal, secular in nature, is bound to appeal to every thinking man. It has a wide appeal because it is not based on any particular dogma.
IS DEMOCRACY AN IDEAL FORM OF GOVERNMENT?
Since the days of Aristotle, democracy has been the ideal of political philosophers. Since the French revolution, government of the people, by the people through their chosen representatives has been the ideal form of government for all nations.
Democracy, socialism, secularism, and international peace are a nation’s goals. These goals are to be achieved through democratic process. In a democracy, all decisions are taken collectively after discussion. The consent of the people is taken through their elected representatives. The political party winning the majority of seats forms the government.
In such a set up individual citizens have an important role to perform. They have a special responsibility of electing a good government and then keeping a watch on its performance. Their co-operations is essential for successfully running a democratic government. Therefore the people too should be fully aware of national and international problems. Only then would they be able to make the correct decision and help the Government to function efficiently. History has proved that man has not been able to devise a better system that democracy. It is, therefore, an ideal form of government.
Question No. 5 (a)
1. The milk of human kindness (feelings of kindness )
Lady Macbeth was devoid of the milk of human kindness.
2. A rule of thumb (A method of doing something based on experience)
I usually work by the rule of thumb.
3. Out and out (Complete; very bad)
He is an out-and-out liar.
4. To wash one’s dirty linen in public (To have a discussion or argument in public, in a manner which attracts attention about private problems, scandals etc.)
If you contest the divorce case your wife is bringing against you, it will amount to washing your dirty linen in public.
5. To pay through the nose (To pay a lot for something.)
If you want a really good car, you have to pay through the nose for it.
6. To lose face (To suffer a loss of respect or reputation.)
You’ll really lose face if you are defeated in the final match.
(i) They had rooms adjoining mine.
The meeting has been adjourned.
(ii) I tried to allay his fears.
Japan was an ally of Germany during the Second World War.
(iii) The climbers had set up bases at various points.
What is the basis of your arguments?
(iv) The lock opened with a click.
There is always a little clique of older members who are jealous of the young.
(v) The noise distracted them from their work.
This minor error of judgment does not detract from her sense of achievement.
(vi) We are all liable to make mistakes.
He appeared in court in the libel case against the Pakistan Times.
Question No. 6 (a)
Q: 1. My boss agreed with my plan.
Ans: My boss agreed to my plan.
Q: 2. If he was here, he would be as wise as he was during the war.
Ans: If he were here, he would be as wise as he was during the war.
Q: 3. We have amusements in form of music.
Ans: (This is a ridiculous, non-sensical and incorrigible sentence. It betrays the incompetence of the examiner. At best itcould:) We enjoy music.
Q: 4. You get angry for all the work you have to do.
Ans: (Again, a ridiculous sentence that can only confuse the candidates.)
You are angry because you have to do a lot of work.
Q: 5. We were glad for being there.
Ans: We were glad to be there.
Q: 6. I prefer the fifth act of Shakespeare Kind Lear the best of all.
Ans: I think the fifth act of King Lear by Shakespeare is better than any other act.
Q: 7. After finishing my lecture, the bell rang.
Ans: After I had finished my lecture, the bell rang.
Q: 8. We need not be afraid.
Ans: We didn’t need to be afraid.
Question No. 6 (b)
(i) He told me that if he had spoken to his father as I spoke to him, he would have beaten him.
(ii) I asked him how far it was and how long it would take him to get there.
(iii) He asked me whether I knew anybody in that area or whether I could get a reference from my land-lady.
(iv) She said to me, ‘Look! Where are you going? The road is full of holes and very badly lit.’
(v) He said to me, ‘Are you going to the concert? Let us make up a party and go together.’
(vi) He said that he mustn’t mind if the first one hadn’t been any good.
(vii) He exclaimed with annoyance that it was a great nuisance adding that then he would have to do it all over again.
(viii) He said that he must go to the dentist the next day as he had an appointment.