1. Energy crisis in Pakistan: causes and consequences
2. A critical analysis of education systems in Pakistan
3. Democracy is a culture rather than a process.
4. Not economy but politics is a key to success
5. Dialogue is the best course to combat terrorism
6. Social and economic securities for women in Islam
7. Without good communication skills, life becomes impossible in the modern world.
8. Have the discoveries of science elevated man spiritually?
9. The UNO has failed to measure up to the demands of its Charter.
10. Truth is a rare commodity despite the freedom by the print and electronic media.
11. Beggars cannot be choosers
12. The world stands more decisive than it was ever before due to the specific imperialist designs
13. The traditional male role changed in the last 20 years.
ENGLISH (Précis & Composition)
PART — II
Q.2 Make a précis of the given passage and suggesta suitable title. (20+5)
Qualifying examinations, which decide eligibility for higher education, have varying influence on the students, their parents and teachers. Often, even very good performances in such examinations cannot ensure one a higher education of one’s choice. If the parents are anxious to see their children perform well in them, the students are under considerable pressure to do so. The teachers, on the other hand, see qualifying examination as an opportunity to earn money. Besides their regular jobs, many teachers work in private coaching institutions, or give special tuition to students who ask for it.
But, despite the prevalence of qualifying examinations at different levels of education, the quality of education is rather unsatisfactory. Educational institutions rarely function as centres of human resource development. Moreover, the unhealthy social environment makes it difficult for students to focus their attention on learning and to improve their creativity. In other words, the poor state of education in the country is not so much due to the mistakes of the past, as it is the inability to rectify the drawbacks of the system and to improve it.
In the present era of liberalisation, self-financing institutions have taken over the responsibility of education from the government. This shift in responsibility had denied the poor, suitable opportunities for an education. It has also increased the disparity in standards among the schools in the country, though for nearly fifty years, the call has been for a common, equitable school system.
Education, to be useful, should be vocationalised. It should teach the people, the skills and the ideas necessary for self-reliant living. But in reality, opportunities for such education are limited and, therefore, difficult for the people to make use of them.
Improving the quality of education is a difficult task. Reforming the examination methods is being tried at different levels of education, yet no encouraging change is visible. Malpractice, common in the examination system, is rarely criticised, and quite strangely, is now considered part of the system.
The key to revive the education system is, however, with the teachers. Their sincerity and commitment to their profession are crucial for such a revival. The training and the selection of teachers, therefore, should be carried out with due care. The unhealthy practice of offering correspondence courses in teacher-training should be stopped. The institutions that offer these courses generally ignore such training as will enable the trainees to deal with students in the appropriate manner. The ills of the education system are such that, rather than simple, cosmetic changes, a thorough revamp is needed to eliminate them.
From Plato to Tolstoy art has been accused of exciting our emotions and thus of disturbing the order and harmony of our moral life. “Poetical imagination, according to Plato, waters our experience of lust and anger, of desire and pain, and makes them grow when they ought to starve with drought. “Tolstoy sees in art a source of infection. “Not only in infection,” he says, “A sign of art, but the degree of infectiousness is also the sole measure of excellence in art.” But the flaw in this theory is obvious. Tolstoy suppresses a fundamental moment of art, the moment of form. The aesthetic experience – the experience of contemplation – is a different state of mind from the coolness of our theoretical and the sobriety of our moral judgment. It is filled with the liveliest energies of passion, but passion itself is here transformed both in its nature and in its meaning. Wordsworth defines poetry as “emotion recollected in tranquillity”. But the tranquillity we feel in great poetry is not that of recollection. The emotions aroused by the poet do not belong to a remote past. They are “here”-alive and immediate. We are aware of their full strength, but this strength tends in a new direction.
It is rather seen than immediately felt. Our passions are no longer dark and impenetrable powers; they become, as it were, transparent. Shakespeare never gives us an aesthetic theory. He does not speculate about the nature of art. Yet in the only passage in which he speaks of the character and function of dramatic art the whole stress is laid upon this point. “The purpose of playing,” as Hamlet explains, “both at the first and now, was and is, to hold, as, ’twere, the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure.” But the image of a passion is not the passion itself. The poet who represents a passion does not infect us with this passion. At a Shakespeare play we are not infected with the ambition of Macbeth, with the cruelty of Richard III, or with the jealousy of Othello. We are not at the mercy of these emotions; we look through them; we seem to penetrate into their very nature and essence. In this respect Shakespeare’s theory of dramatic art, if he had such a theory, is in complete agreement with the conception of the fine arts of the great painters and sculptors.
Q.3. Read the following passage and answers the questions that follow. (20)
It is in the very nature of the helicopter that its great versatility is found. To begin with, the helicopter is the fulfilment of one of man’s earliest and most fantastic dreams. The dream of flying – not just like a bird – but of flying as nothing else flies, or has ever flown. To be able to fly straight up and straight down – to fly forward or back or sidewise, or to hover over and spot till the fuel supply is exhausted. To see how the helicopter can do things that are not possible for the conventional fixed-wing plane, let us first examine how a conventional plane “works.” It works by its shape – by the shape of its wing, which deflects air when the plane is in motion. That is possible because air has density and resistance. It reacts to force. The wing is curved and set at an angle to catch the air and push it down; the air, resisting, pushes against the under surface of the wing, giving it some of its lift. At the same time the curved upper surface of the wing exerts suction, tending to create a lack of air at the top of the wing. The air, again resisting, sucks back, and this gives the wing about twice as much lift as the air pressure below the wing. This is what takes place when the wing is pulled forward by propellers or pushed forward by jet blasts. Without the motion the wing has no lift.
(i) Where is the great versatility of the helicopter found?
(ii) What is the dream of flying?
(iii) What does the wing of the conventional air craft do?
(iv) What does the curved upper surface of the wing do?
(v) What gives the wing twice as much lift?
Contrast and variety – these are the very essence of caves. Caves are frequently described the networks of holes in the ground. This is true of course, but it is a rather callous way to speak of a unique and fascinating world. There is nothing on the surface of the Earth which is at all similar to this world below. Caves consist of miles of passages, great caverns hundreds of feet high and wide, with roaring stream passages and fabulously decorated stalactite and stalagmite chambers.
There are even some rather nasty, muddy little tunnels – to fit the popular misguided concept of a cave. And until a caver wanders in with a lamp, this whole peculiar world is in total darkness.
To many people, darkness is disturbing. And yet few can have experienced the absolute and total darkness of a cave. Beyond the entrance, there are no little chinks of light, no reflections, no glows from distant houses – there is no light at all. A hand held an inch in front of the face is totally invisible. The only lights are those that the caver takes in for himself. The helmet-mounted lamp moves around with the eyes and gives the false impression that the cave is lit all over, and not just in a tiny wedge in the beam of the lamp. Even a properly equipped caver will sometimes, perhaps while he is waiting alone for his colleagues, put out his lamp to experience the total darkness of caves. And it is a very odd experience: with no light at all, he has only his memory to tell him what surrounds him, he will probably soon feel cold, he may lose his sense of balance, and in a short time he may begin to feel uneasy. Only the really experienced caver can feel relaxed in this situation; most would shortly, almost involuntarily, turn on their light again.
And then there is the silence. Many caves are complexly silent – an emotionless feature which matches the darkness. In others the sound of dripping water, or the dull rumble of a distant stream, or even the tremendous roar of an adjacent waterfall may be heard. But these are all sounds which are constant, unless there is a rainstorm on the surface above, and after a time they seem totally uniform and featureless to the listener. It is a sobering thought that this almost dimensionless, dark environment has probably remained unchanged in most caves for five thousand years or more.
Everyone is surprised when they enter a cave for the first time. Some may turn back in sheer horror, a few may experience claustrophobia, but most will continue in incredulous amazement. They will probably be surprised to find that not all caves are “tight muddy little tubes in the rock”, but that many consist of lofty galleries, with the roofs lost in the darkness, and containing wide, swift, underground rivers. Clean rock walls and sheets of stalactites are usually more abundant than mud. Most people who first enter a cave do so in a show cave – one that is cleverly illuminated by hidden electric lamps, and provided with a convenient footpath. But this is not the true cave environment. The darkness, the mystery, the strangeness of a world in which man is an intruder – all these aspects of an untouched caves are lost in a show cave. Caves are a unique feature of this planet; they contain much to fascinate man, yet he can barely appreciate them. After all, who can really visualise a hole in the ground hundreds of feet below the surface? Even the caver who looks up at the roof of this passage finds it difficult to understand that there are tons of rocks above his head.
(I) What makes the phrase “a network of holes in the ground” a poor description of a cave?
(ii) How does the darkness of a cave differ from the darkness of night in the world above the ground?
(iii) How may a false impression be created in a caver that a cave is lit all over by his lamp?
(iv) Describe what happens to an inexperienced caver soon after he puts out his lamp.
(v) What emotion is aroused in a person who contem plates the “almost dimensionless, dark environ ment” of a cave?
Q.4. Write a comprehensive note (250 – 300 words)on any ONE of the following: (15)
(i) Do we live better than our forefathers?
(ii) Variety is the spice of life.
(iii) Truth is stranger than Fiction.
(iv) If winter comes, can spring be far behind?
(v) Reading maketh a full man; conference, a ready man; writing, an exact man.
(vi) Protecting freedom of expression not lies.
(vii) A ship without a rudder is like a life without a philosophy.
Q.5. (A) Use ONLY FIVE of the following in sentences which illustrate their meaning (5)
(i) the last straw (ii) small talk
(iii) hit rock bottom (iv) play it by ear
(v) in a bind (vi) road rage
(vii) Not worth the candle
(viii) Leave in the lurch.
(ix) Hard and fast.
(x) Weather the storm.
(xi) Bear the brunt.
(xii) Meet halfway.
(xiv) Where the shoe pinches
(xv) Big enchilada
(B) Use ONLY FIVE of the following pairs of words in sentences which illustrate their meaning. Extra attempt of any Part of the question will not be considered.
(i) persecute, prosecute
(ii) luxuriant, luxurious
(iii) mean, mien
(iv) observation, observance
(v) naughty, knotty
(vi) ghostly, ghastly
(vii) hew, hue
(viii) freeze, frieze
(ix) grisly, grizzly
(x) current, currant
(xi) hoard, horde
(xii) bated, baited
(xiii) breach, breech
(xiv) curb, kerb
(xv) fawn, faun
Q.6 (A) Correct ONLY FIVE of the following: (5)
(I) To hit a person when he is down is a contemptuous thing to be done.
(ii) In 1665, a great epidemic had caused the death of 63000 people in London.
(iii) Because his lack of interest in the affairs of the society, the members decided to depose him.
(iv) The boy collected thousands of foreign stamps since 2008.
(v) We watched the airplane until it disappeared by the clouds.
(vi) According to activists, action must be taken long ago to preserve forests.
(vii) When Sophia said that she was coming to see me I wondered what was the problem.
(viii) The doctor suggested that I would walk on and try to get help while he stayed with the injured person.
(ix) This house is built of bricks and stones.
(x) The climate of Pakistan is better than England?
(xi) He swore by God.
(xii) You ought to have regarded him your benefactor.
(xiii) My friend is very ill, I hope he will soon die.
(xiv) He is waiting for better and promising opportunity.
(xv) When I shall see her I will deliver her your gift.
(xvi) Many a sleepless nights she spent.
(B) Change the narration from direct to indirect orindirect to direct speech. (Do only FIVE) Extra attempt of any Part of the question willnot be considered. (5)
(I) The teacher said, “Do not put off till tomorrow what you can do today.”
(ii) The old man said, “May you prosper in life!”
(iii) He said, “Does she understand English?”
(iv) He said to his friend, “Will you accompany me to the market?”
“No, I cannot accompany you as I am expecting some guests today,” replied his friend.
(v) “Can you guess who is coming tonight?” said her brother.
(vi) He said to me, “Why are you sad today?”
(vii) “Thank you, boys,” said the headmaster, “You may go home now. Come here tomorrow morning at seven sharp. The national flag will be un furled at seven thirty.”
(viii) “I am certain, I will succeed in my plan,” he said to his mother.
(ix) On Monday he said, “My son is coming today.”
(x) They wanted to know where he was going the following week.
(xi) He said, “Did she go yesterday?”
(xii) ‘By God’, he said, “I do not know her nickname.”
(xiii) He says that we are to meet him at the station.
(xiv) He said, “I don’t know the way. Ask the old man sitting on the gate.”
(xv) My father prayed that I would recover from myillness.
(xvi) He said, “How will you manage it?”
General Knowledge Paper-I (Everyday Science)
Note : (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Candidates must write Q. No. in the Answer
Book in accordance with Q. No. in the
(iii) Attempt ONLY FIVE questions from Part-II.
Q2: Write short notes on the following Muslim scientists by giving their exact life span and contribution to the field of science.( 5 each)
(a) Jabir bin Hayan (b) Abu Ali Ibn Sina
Q3: (a) Draw and label a diagram of human eye. (5)
(b) What is myopia and how it is corrected? (5)
Q4: (a) What is galaxy? The Earth belongs to which galaxy? (2)
(b) Briefly describe what is big bang theory. (3)
(c) Write a note on Voyager-1. (5)
Q5: (a) Write a note on National Climate Change Policy of Pakistan. (5)
(b) How does climate change contribute to floods? (5)
Q6: (a) What is biotechnology? What are its usages in the medical field? (5)
(b) Define Energy. Name four renewable sources of energy. How can our country come out of Energy Crisis? (5)
Q7: (a) Name the hormones secreted by the poste-
rior pituitary gland? Briefly describe their actions in human body. (2,4)
(b) Differentiate between transcription and translation? Where do they take place in an animal cell? (4)
Q8: (a) Differentiate between ROM and RAM. (5)
(b) How do emails arrive at their destination?
Q.9. (a) Highlight the similarities and differences between animals and plants. (3+3)
(b) Write short note on ANY TWO of the following. (2 each)
(i) Teleprinter (ii) Dengue Virus
(iii) Vacuum Cleaner
Q10: Differentiate between any Five of the following pairs:- (2×5)
(a) Typhoons and Tornadoes
(b) Microscope and Telescope
(c) Ultrasonics and Infrasonics
(d) Hard water and Heavy water
(e) Isotopes and Isomers
(f) Antibodies and Antibiotic
(g) Antigens and Vaccine
Q.11. (a) What are the essential nutrients of BAL
ANCED DIET? Describe one such nutrient in
detail explaining its role in the metabolism. (2+4)
(b) What do the following scientific abbrevia
tions stand for? (1/2 each)
(i) PVC (ii) BCG (iii) ECG
(iv) CFC (v) LPG (vi) DNA
(vii) AIDS (viii) TNT
GENERALKNOWLEDGE PAPER-II (CURRENT AFFAIRS) PART-II
Note : (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Candidates must write Q. NO. in the
Answer Book in accordance with Q. No. in the Q. paper.
(iii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from Part-II. All questions carry equal marks.
Q.2. In the light of recent elections in Pakistan and India, do you see youth as a factor of change in political culture of the sub-continent?
Q.3. How do you see the prospects of Pakistan –Russia strategic dialogue as a game changer in world politics? To which extent will it positively impact for SCO membership?
Q.4. What feasible measures would you suggest to bridge the existing trust deficit between Pakistan and India for the resumption of stalled process of composite dialogue in the context of recent developments?
Q.5. Critically examine the potential and scope of Pak-Turkey relations.
Q.6. In what capacity can Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline (IP) project address socio-economic problems of Pakistan and Iran?
Q.7. Write down psychological and social impact of energy crisis on Pakistani society.
Q.8. What are the interests of Pakistan, India, China, Iran and Russia in post-2014 Afghanistan?
Q.9. Discuss the recent Iran Nuclear Deal and its impact on the region in general and Pakistan in particular.
Q.10. Give recommendations to make SAARC an effective organization at regional level keeping in view success of the European Union.
Q.11. What feasible measures would you suggest to bridge the existing trust deficit between Pakistan and India for the resumption of stalled
process of composite dialogue.
Q.12. Should Pakistan Abolish or Retain Capital Punishment? Give your recommendations.
Q.13. Can dialogue with Taliban bring an end to terrorism in Pakistan? Discuss in detail.
Q.14. Examine the causes of disturbances in Baluchistan.
Q.15. Write explanatory notes on any two of the following:
(a) Pak-Afghan Relations (b) Kalabagh Dam
(c) Drone Attacks. (d) GSP+ Status.
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, PAPER-III (PAKISTAN AFFAIRS) PART-II
Note: (i) Part-II is to be attempted on the separate Answer Book.
(ii) Candidate must write Q. No. in the
Answer Book in accordance with Q. No.
in the Q. Paper.
(iii) Attempt ONLY FOUR questions from
PART-II. ALL questions carry EQUAL
(iv) Extra attempt of any question or any
part of the attempted question will not
Q.2. What specific steps were initiated by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan which later on became the agenda points of the movement for Pakistan? How did these steps orient the Political system in Pakistan? (20)
Q.3.Shah Waliullah realized “the renaissance of Islam and Muslim Society cannot be affected until the intellectual life of the Muslims is reoriented.” Discuss critically. (20)
Q.3. Describe the main content and relative importance of the Lucknow Pact and Delhi Muslim Proposals and their respective impact on the subsequent political development in India. (20)
Q.4. According to many historians, the Simla Deputation was a planted project of the Britishers. Discuss. (20)
Q.5. Discuss the role of Muslim press in India and its importance in shaping the public opinion be fore partition. Elaborate the role of prominent Muslim journalists in this regard. (20)
Q.6. Assess the account for the problems which Quaid-e-Azam had to face as Governor General of Pakistan. (20)
Q.6. Address the importance of Pakistan’s relations with the European Union for the foreign policy of Pakistan as a whole. (20)
Q.7. What impact Pakistan’s geography has on the socio-economic patterns of its people’s life? (20)
Q.8. Discuss in detail how Pakistan’s search for security and India factor dominated Pakistan’s Foreign Policy. (20)
Q.9. What are the causes of Inflation in Pakistan? Discuss measures to control it.(20)
Q.10. Is political leadership of Pakistan in position to address the problems it is facing these days? Take a position and give your point of view in detail. (20)