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How To Crack CSS SCREENING TEST

Here is a brief analysis of the components of the test along with a pragmatic approach to realize your dream of getting through.

PART- I : ENGLISH  
(WEIGHTAGE = 20%)

Vocabulary
The candidate’s ability to handle the structure of English will be tested by framing items based upon grammatical categories. The test will comprise:
Synonyms Antonyms
Pairs of Words
Idioms
Tip: The whole English vocabulary cannot be learned. So, don’t panic! Leave cramming the Vocabulary books behind. Learn and practice roots of words to the maximum; it will make a big difference at the end of the day.
Grammar usage
It will consist of :
Direct & Indirect
Speech
Active & Passive Voice
Correction of Sentences
Prepositions
Regularly practice the past papers of CSS.
Comprehension
Passages will be given with multiple choice questions at the end and you will be asked to choose the right one.
Take various paragraphs from newspapers, books, etc. and ask questions to yourself. It’s the best way to learn this essential but scoring part of paper. In addition, do consult, Discovering the World of English and Discovery the World of Vocabulary.

PART-II: GENERAL ABILITIES
(WEIGHTAGE = 20%)

1.     Basic Arithmetic
In this segment, questions will mainly base on:
Numbers
Simplification
Square Roots & Cube Roots
H.C.F. & L.C.M.
Exponents, Surds & Indices
Ratio & Proportion
Percentage & Average  & other similar features of basic arithmetic .
2.    Algebra
Then questions in Algebra portion will consist of:
Polynomials
Equations
Inequalities
mathematical formulae
Word Problems  & such other topics relating to Algebra.
3.    Geometry, (SSC Level)
Basic concepts relating to:
Lines & Angles
Triangles
Circles
Quadrilaterals & Polygons

LOGICAL REASONING

What is Logical Reasoning?
Logical reasoning is the process which uses arguments, statements, premises and axioms to define whether a statement is true or false, resulting in a logical or illogical reasoning.
Types
Following three different types of reasoning can bedistinguished:
1.    Deductive Reasoning
In deductive reasoning the truth of the input propositions (the premises) logically guarantees the truth of the output proposition (the conclusion), provided that no mistake has been made in the reasoning. The basic principle on which deductive reasoning is based, is:
If, 1 = 2 (premise)
and 2 = 3 (premise)
then, 1 = 3 (conclusion)
The conclusion drawn in the above example is an obvious fact in the premise.

Examples

Example 1
All oranges are fruits
All fruits grow on trees
Therefore, all oranges grow on trees
Example 2
Javed is a bachelor,
All bachelors are single,
Hence, Javed is single
The above examples are valid and sound.
Here are a few valid, but unsound examples;
Example 3
All flight attendants know how to swim
Fahad knows how to swim
Hence, Fahad is a flight attendant.
The above conclusion is untrue, because it is not necessary that only flight attendants know how to swim.

Practice Exercise

Which is an example of a deductive argument?
(a)    There are 25 CDs on the top shelf of my bookcase and 14 on the lower shelf. There are no other CDs in my bookcase. Therefore, there are 39 CDs in my bookcase.
(b)    Topeka is either in Kansas or Honduras. If Topeka is in Kansas, then Topeka is in North America. If Topeka is in Honduras, then Topeka is in Central America. Therefore, Topeka is in Kansas.
(c)    No one got an A on yesterday’s test. Jimmy wasn’t in school yesterday. Jimmy will make up the test today and get an A.
Answer
The answer is a, because only it has two premises and a conclusion that follows logically from them.
2.    Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning works the way opposite to the deductive reasoning i.e., moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. It is also called “bottom up” approach.
Example
Today, I left for work at eight o’clock and I arrived on time. Therefore, every day that I leave the house at eight o’clock, I will arrive to work on time.
In the example above, perhaps ‘today’ is a weekend with less traffic, so if you left the house at eight o’clock on a Monday, it would take longer and you would be late for work. It is illogical to assume an entire premise just because one specific data set seems to suggest it.
Note: While inductive reasoning is commonly used in science, it is not always logically valid because it is not always accurate to assume that a general principle is correct.
Exercise
Choose the best general conclusion that follows: from this specific observation:
Every time I touch snow, it feels cold.
(a)    All snow is cold.
(b)    Some snow is cold.
( C)    My hands may be cold.
(d)    My hands are made of snow.

Ans. (a)

3.    Abductive Reasoning
Abductive reasoning typically begins with an incomplete set of observations and proceeds to the likeliest possible explanation for the set. Abductive reasoning yields the kind of daily decision-making that does its best with the information at hand, which often is incomplete.
Examples
When someone has a heart attack, (s)he tends to have a feeling of strangulation, pain in the chest radiating to the left shoulder and arm, abnormal perspiration, shortness of breath and nausea.
Sarfraz has just experienced a feeling of strangulation, pain in the chest radiating to the left shoulder and arm, abnormal perspiration, shortness of breath and nausea.
Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that Sarfraz had a heart attack.
Exercise
What kind of reasoning is in the following question?
‘According to a recent campus survey, 30% of students admit to buying term papers off of the Internet. They probably cheat because they don’t have time to do their own work. I’ll extend the deadline and see if that helps.’
(a)    Abductive reasoning
(b)    Inductive reasoning
(c)    Deductive reasoning

Ans. (a)

ANALYTICAL ABILITY
This is a significant test area that will test your ability to critically analyze the statement and unearth any hidden assumptions, possible inferences or conclusions, analysis of the nature of arguments (whether strong or weak) and so on.
Example
Answer the following question:
Plant XYZ has 5 production lines. Each line is having 45 m/cs having the productivity for shirts as 800 pcs/day. If the plant is taking 40,000 pcs order, how many days it will take (Production) to complete the order?

Ans. 10 Days

GENERAL MENTAL ABILITY

General mental ability is one of the prime topics of the Screening Test for CSS-2014. This portion tests the level at which the aspirants learn things, understand the instructions and solve problems.
Example
Directions: Study the following information to answer the given questions.
(I) Six books are kept one on top of the other.
(ii) The History book is just above Accounting. (iii)    The Maths book is between Punjabi & Urdu.
(iv) English is between History and Punjabi.

1. Which book is between the Maths and English books?
(a)    History
(b)      Accounting
( c)    Urdu
(d)    None of these

Ans: (d)

2. Which book is at the bottom?
(a)    Punjabi
(b)     Accounting
( c)     Urdu
(d)    Can’t be determined

Ans: (b)

3. Which book is at the top?
(a)    Urdu
(b)    Punjabi
( c)    Accounting
(d)    Can’t be determined

Ans: (a)

Solution Explained
The books are kept from top to bottom in the following order:

PART-III: GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
(WEIGHTAGE 15X3 = 45%)
(a)     Everyday Science (15%)
(b)    Current Affairs (15%)
( c)     Pakistan Affairs (15%)
Solving the past 10 years papers and staying in touch with the latest happenings around the world would be sufficient to pass this portion of the test easily.

PART-IV: ISLAMIAT
(WEIGHTAGE = 15%)
In past papers of CSS, it has been observed that many questions are frequently repeated. So, have a grasp over the basic concept of Islam and solve the past papers of 10-15 years as it would make your journey to success quite easy.

GURU’S ADVICE

To get through the “Screening Test” is not an easy task but with well-planned preparation and a pragmatic approach, it can be made as easy as pie. The CSS Guru advises that the candidates should take following measures into consideration and chalk out a plan to prepare for the test:

1. Study with an approach based on the fact that you are simultaneously preparing for Screening Test as well as the written part of CE-2014. However, give more time to objective portion of all the subjects.

2. Make a timetable with minimum two additional hours set aside for MCQs preparation.

3. The golden rule to success is “practice, practice and practice”. Solve model papers, especially from Jahangir’s World Times and the book entitled ‘CSS Screening Test’, as much as you can.

These suggestions will surely pay you off on the actual test day and your dream of joining Civil

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