1. Introduction

2. Media and Its Types

  • a. Print media
  • b. Electronic media

3. Components of Freedom of Media

  •  No censoring of news / programmes by the government.
  •  No imposition of economic restraints
  •  No cancellation of permits/licenses, etc.
  •  No threats to journalists

4. Importance of Free Media

A. Importance for political sector

  • Ensures sustenance of democracy
  • Guarantees an environment of accountability
  • Spreads political awareness
  • Assists the government in decision-making
  • Strengthens electoral process

B. Importance for economic sector

  • Provides the government with the information on national and international economic trends
  • Assists investors in economic decision-making
  • Highlights mistakes and wrongdoings of the government

C. Importance for social sector

  • Imparts informal education
  • Disseminates information and knowledge
  • Inculcates etiquettes
  • Upgrades living standards
  • Highlights social evils
  • Reflects the true image of the nation
  • Indicates human rights violations
  • Provides cheap source of entertainment

5. Role of Media in Pakistan: A Case Study

  • Lawyers’ Movement against Pervez Musharraf
  • Restoration of judiciary
  • Change of public opinion with reference to terrorists
  • Privatization of Steel Mills and other units
  • Sustenance of democracy
  • Emergence of a third political force and 2013 election
  • Changing status and role of women

6. Some Negative Impacts

  • Revealing of the national secrets
  • Promotion of obscenity
  • Deterioration of morality
  • Spread of consumerism
  • Causing of mental unrest
  • Deterioration of foreign relations of the state
  • Damage to the image of the nation and the state

7. Causes of the Evils of Media

8. Recommendations

a) For ensuring independence of media

  • Enactment of laws
  • Public awareness campaigns
  • Active role of the civil society
  • Independent role of judiciary
  • Mature role of media organizations

b) For eradication of evils of media

  • Enactment of laws and strict implementation
  • Effective role of regulatory authorities
  • Establishment of effective mechanism within the media organizations
  • Devising of a consensus-based code of conduct collectively  by the media organizations
  • Provision of better work facilities to media personnel
  • Promotion of media education as an important field
  • Training of media personnel


  1. Start your introductory paragraphs with some beautiful and attractive sentences and then carry on the discussion; staying connected with the topic. Gradually, the discussion will be narrowed down till it reaches the thesis statement. At the end of the paragraph, do give a thesis statement describing the overall scope of the essay.
  2. In the next paragraph, describe the types of media in a scholarly way. It is always advisable to use technical terms and phrases in order to convince the examiner of the depth of your knowledge.
  3. In the next 2-3 paragraphs, you should be describing the components of freedom of media. In these paragraphs, you will explain what freedom of media actually is.
  4. Next 7-8 paragraphs, spread over 5-6 pages, will contain the discussion over the importance of free media. As this part of the essay covers the main question asked in the topic, do make every possible effort to substantiate your arguments with pertinent examples and relevant data. It is advisable to collect relevant material on every expected topic well before the exam.
  5. In the next paragraphs, you should discuss the role played by the Pakistani media, particularly in the recent decade or so. Your critique in this part of the essay should be highly professional and objective. At no point should you create the impression that you have personal liking or disliking for some individuals, media groups or politicians. Though, your examples and arguments would be factual, I advise you to avoid specific names as maximum as possible.
  6. While giving causes, you should use media jargon to the maximum possible extent. The examiner should get a feel that you have an educational background in media studies. In the paragraphs comprising causes, the first sentence, usually, is the brief description of the cause. This description is followed by its justification in the following 3-4 sentences and that’s it. Generally, the average length of such paragraphs is 4-5 sentences.
  7. Next to the causes, you are to give recommendations based on these causes. Here, you should try to be extremely practical and sharply focused. While recommending some measures, you should also suggest the modus operandi for their practical implementation.
  8. In concluding paragraph, all that has been discussed in the essay is presented in a summarized way. You are, however, advised to avoid borrowing sentences from the earlier paragraphs of the essay. Whatsoever the topic might be, you should end your concluding paragraph on some positive note. More precisely, you are bound to gift the examiner some rays of hope while departing him.

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