2. Industrial Sector and Its Components
3. Importance of Industrial Sector For A Country
4. Different Phases of Industrial Development in Pakistan
a) 1950s: The era of rapid industrial growth
b) 1960s: The ere of industrial stabilization
c) 1970s: Nationalization and its impacts
d) 1980s: Russia-Afghan war and pro-industry policies of Zia
e) 1990s: The decade of privatization
f) Post 9/11: Commercialization under Musharraf
5. Present Situation of Pakistan’s Industrial Sector
a) Situation of manufacturing sector
ü Large-scale manufacturing (LSM)
ü Small-scale manufacturing (SSM)
b) Situation of construction sector
c) Situation of mining sector
d) Situation of electricity-generation and distribution sector
6. Issues Confronting the Industrial Sector of Pakistan
a) Economic Issues
Huge bank spread
Devaluation of currency
Pressure of inflation
Under-utilization of national resources
Lack of infrastructure
b) Social Issues
Marginalized role of women
Malnutrition and diseases
Slackness and lethargy
c) Political Issues
d) Administrative Issues
Poor performance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs)
Labyrinthine procedures and processes in government offices
Poor law and order situation
Weak criminal justice system
Lack of focus on research and development
7. Some Workable Solutions to the Industrial Sector Issues
a. Provision of cheap and uninterrupted supply of energy to the industrial sector on preferential basis
b. Provision of cheap and easy credit facility
c. Maximum extraction and utilization of indigenous mineral resources
d. Effective and beneficial use of women workforce
e. Provision of necessary healthcare facilities for the labour
f. Eradication of the scourge of terrorism
g. Research-based and workable industrial policies.
h. Sustenance of democracy and political stability
i. Promotion of public-private partnership
j. Improved law and order situation and protection of property rights.
k. Reservation of substantial budget for research and development.
- This is an example of economy-specific essays. Aspirants should option to write on such topics only if they have sufficient knowledge with respect to economic jargon and economy-related facts and figures. Such topics appear too easy and simple to write on but, in reality, they are too tricky, therefore, risky. Patchy knowledge is too easily detectable in economy-related essays and examiner takes no time to fail the candidate. In my view, substantial acquaintance with the following economic terminology, economic concepts and facts and figures is a prerequisite for writing on the this topic: GDP and GDP growth rate, components of the economic sector of Pakistan, pillars of Pakistan’s industrial sector, devaluation and depreciation of currency, balance of payments and trade, weightage of industrial sector in country’s overall economy, industrial growth rate of Pakistan over the decades, etc.
- Similarly, it is also advisable to present a scholarly comparison of the industrial sector of Pakistan with that of India and Bangladesh, at least. Besides data, you should focus on the policies of India and Bangladesh which have brought positive results in their industrial sectors.
- Do bear in mind that industrial sector does not mean the manufacturing sector alone: construction, mining and electricity-generation are also part of it. Data pertaining to all these sectors is available on the website of Ministry of Finance, especially in form of the Economic Survey of Pakistan. While writing such an essay, do also compare the present performance of the industrial sector of Pakistan with that of previous years in order to highlight the path it is moving along.
- Critical analysis of the industrial sector of Pakistan in different political regimes is also an essential component of this essay. Relevant material in this regard is available in research papers, articles and scholarly essays which are quite easily available on the internet. Aspirants should collect relevant information well before the exam.
- Issues confronting the industrial sector of the country should be presented in a scholarly way. While explaining the issues, try to quote the relevant data and facts that support your stance. Repetition of material merely to enhance the length of the essay must be avoided at every cost.
- While presenting recommendations in the last part of the essay, try to be extremely logical and practical in your approach. You should recommend only such solutions that are workable in the peculiar environment of Pakistan. Ideally, you must also write on the mechanism through which the recommended solution can be implemented.