UNCLOS of 1982
To comprehend the starting point from which any water bodies are measured, the concept of baseline comes into play. As per Articles 5 and 7(1) of UNCLOS III, there are two types of baselines: normal and straight. Per Article 5, “The normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts.” Normal baselines can only be adopted if there are no complications along the coast, such as deeply indented coastlines, or islands along the coastline in its immediate vicinity.
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