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Administration is mainly concerned with management of public affairs. For efficaciously administering the affairs, the head of the administration i.e. an administrator, must have exemplary character and faculty for the said purpose. He must also possess administrative skills. Being cognizant of these requirements, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) set high standards of administration and became a role model for administrators for all the times to come. The cornerstone of the administration set by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was welfare of people. On account of the successful administration of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the extremely barbarous, fiercely clannish and unruly people of the pre-Islamic Arabia became leaders of the world and standard-bearers for knowledge and human-friendly administration that was based on wellbeing of general masses and will of Allah Almighty. That administration produced a social order that made the slaves sultans, accepted as rulers also by the subjects.

The cardinal principles and salient features of administration established by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) are briefly discussed hereunder:

1. Division of state into provinces

For effective administration, the Islamic state was divided into provinces of Makkah, Madina, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, Tehama and Hadhramaut. Only the most reliable, most honest and learned companions of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were appointed as Wali – the governor of a province. Other government functionaries were also appointed. For example, Amileen were appointed in each province for the sole purpose of collecting Zakat. In the same way, judges (Qazi) were also appointed for disseminating speedy and inexpensive justice.

2. Consultation

The administration established by the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was based on consultation. All important decisions were taken in consultation with the learned and scholarly companions. It was especially so because it is a prerequisite for taking wise administrative decisions and is also an important trait of Muslims; Allah Almighty says in verse 38 of Surah Ash-Shura (Consultation) “And those who have responded to their lord and established prayer and whose affair is [determined by] consultation among themselves…”. For example, the decision to dig trench for the defence of Madina at the time of Ghazwa Khandaq (Battle of the Trench) was based entirely on consultation.

3. Internal stability and law & order

Prior to Islam, the vast tract of land called Arabia was considered a desert inhabited by numerous Bedouin tribes who were always at daggers drawn with, and hostile to, each other. The administration of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) gave a conclusive end to that impression by forging unity and brotherhood among those tribes and it went a long way in creating internal stability that is vital for improved law and order situation, which, in turn, is the prime objective of administration. In the Holy Quran, it has been mentioned that when Hazrat Ibrahim was praying for wellbeing of the Makkans, first of all he prayed to Allah Almighty for making Makkah a city of peace and then he prayed for other comforts and benefits for people of Makkah, because without peace, other facilities are of no worth.

4. Absolute integrity and impeccable character

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About Atta-ur-Rehman Khilji

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