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One of the most ominous and discreditable symptoms of the want of candour in present-day sociology is the deliberate neglect of the population question. It is, or should be, transparently clear that, if the state is resolved on, humanitarian grounds to inhibit the operation of natural selection some rational regulation of population, both as regards quantity and quality is imperatively necessary. There is no self-acting adjustment, apart from starvation, of numbers to the means of subsistence. If all natural checks are removed, a population in advance of the optimum number will be produced, and maintained at the cost of a reduction in the standard of living. When this pressure begins to be felt, that section of the population which is capable of reflection and which has a standard of living that may be lost, will voluntarily restrict its numbers, even to the point of failing to replace deaths by an equivalent number of new births; while the underworld, which always exists in every civilised society – the failure and misfits and derelicts, moral and physical – will exercise no restraint, and will be a constantly increasing drain upon the national resources. The population will, thus, be recruited, in a very undue proportion, by those strata of society which do not possess the qualities of useful citizens.
The importance of the problem would seem to be sufficiently obvious. But politicians know that the subject is unpopular. The unborn have no votes. Employers are like a surplus of labour, which can be drawn upon when trade is good. Militarists want as much food for power as they can get. Revolutionists instinctively oppose any real remedy for social evils; they know that every unwanted child is a potential insurgent. All three can appeal to a quasi-religious prejudice, resting apparently on the ancient theory of natural rights, which were supposed to include the right of unlimited procreation. This objection is now chiefly urged by celibate or childless priests; but it is held with such fanatical vehemence that the fear of losing the votes which they control is a welcome excuse for the baser sort of politicians to shelve the subject as inopportune. The Socialist calculation is probably erroneous; for experience has shown that it is aspiration, not desperation that makes revolutions.
One of the greatest drawbacks in the present social system is indifference to the population question. In case, the government resolves to handle the problem, attention has to be paid to both the quantity and quality side of the question. If no restraint is exercised on natural production, starvation is inevitable; and the standard of living of the high class is likely to be affected. It is true that the higher strata of society can forego production event to the extent of the number of deaths but the lower class cannot be educated so far and the population is likely to inflate by poor influx. In spite of the importance of the problem politicians, employers, military men, revolutionists and socialists do not pay any heed to the problem in their selfish interest.
Title: The Population Question
The first step is for us to realise that a city need not be a frustrater of life; it can be, among other things, a mechanism for enhancing life, for producing possibilities of living which are not to be realised except through cities. But, for that to happen, deliberate and drastic planning is needed. Towns, as much as animals, must have their systems of organs. Those for transport and circulation are an obvious example. What we need now are organ-systems for recreation, leisure, culture, community expression. This means smoke-prevention, abundance of open space, easy access to unspoilt Nature, beauty in parks and in fine buildings, gymnasia and swimming baths and recreation-grounds in plenty, central spaces for celebrations and demonstrations, halls for citizens’ meetings, concert halls and theatres and cinemas that belong to the city. And the buildings must not be built anyhow or dumped down anywhere; both they and their groupings should mean something important to the people of the place.
Read More: COMMENTARY ON CSS ENGLISH ESSAY PAPER 2018
Questions & Answers
Q.1: What should we expect from a city?
Ans: A city should not frustrate life. Its function is to heighten life and to make life more interesting and fruitful.
Q.2: What kind of planning is necessary to make it possible for a city to fulfil its functions?
Ans: Smoke should be prevented. There should be plenty of open space where people may come into contact with Nature. Parks and buildings should be beautiful. A sufficient number of gymnasia, swimming-baths, and recreation-grounds should be provided. Central spaces for celebrations and demonstrations should be available. Concert halls and theatres and cinemas should also be a part of the planning of a city. Buildings should be constructed according to some plan, not indiscriminately or at random.
Q.3: In what way can towns be compared to animals?
Ans: Towns are like animals insofar as they must have their systems of organs. Transport and circulation are an example of these organ-systems.
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or the thing is related to something else.
Types of prepositions
(1) Simple word prepositions: to, on, in, by, at, of, up, for, with, till, into, about, along, through, since, from, among, between, during, towards, off
(2) Phrase prepositions: along with, in spite of, in accordance with, in order to, in front of, in view of, because of, instead of, in the course of, but for, on account of, owing to, on behalf of, due to, together with, in regard to, for the sake of.
I. at, on, in, during, for, by, from, since, before: Used for the expression of time.
(a) is used with an exact point of time like hours, moments etc.
(b) for festivals which mark a point in the year
2. Before: means earlier than
Note: ‘Before’ differs from ‘ago’. The time is used after the word ‘before’ but with ‘ago’ that time is used before it. ‘Before’ takes a specific time after it. ‘Ago’ cannot be used with a specific time, but with an extent of time.
e.g.: Before 1’O clock, Before 6’O clock Ten days ago, Two years ago ‘Before’ is also used to mean ‘in front of, in reference to order and position.
e.g.: Monday comes before Tuesday Bring Raj before independence.
3. On: is used before days and dates
Note: On, at and in are not used if an adjective precedes ‘day’
e.g. Ali may come here Monday. Sana called to see me yesterday.
4. In: is used to denote a period of time, months and years
5. During: is used to express the idea that an occurrence or situation for the whole of a specific period.
6. By: is used to denote the latest time by which something is to be done
7. For: is used to show the duration of time in the past.
8. From: refers to the starting point of an action which is not continued.
II. in, at, on – Used for the expression of place
1. In: (a) is generally used with larger areas such as continents, countries, states, cities and large towns
(b) for the names of streets and roads
(c) for the kind of house or residence, when no specific one is mentioned.
2. At: (a) For a particular house or place of residence
(b) for a particular spot or place
Note: for larger places use ‘in’ for smaller places use ‘at’
Place of work
(a) For the kind of place, use ‘in’ if it is a building
(b) If it is not a building, use ‘on’
(c) For a particular room or department use ‘in’
Things to Remember
1. Between: is used when two persons, places, etc. are referred to.
2. Among: is used when more than two persons or things are referred to
3. Under: is used with persons and things
4. Underneath: is usually used with things.
5. Of: indicates origin, authorship, causes, connection
6. Off: means away from
7. To: means towards, in the direction of, etc. It is also used for comparison and ratio
8. Towards: is used in the sense of ‘in the direction of’, ‘as regard to’, ‘in relation to’, ‘near’.
9. With: is used for instruments.
10. Across: means from side to side
11. Over: indicates movements from an upright position, motion towards, at or to a level higher.
12. By: is used for agents or doers
13. At: is used to denote some state or condition, direction towards, amount, number, price, speed
14. Into: indicates movements to the inside of something
1. A foul smell arose ____ the swamp
(a) in (b) into
(c) with (d) from
2. The players must abide ____ the decision of the referee
(a) with (b) to
(c) by (d) in
3. Your bike is inferior ____ his bike
(a) to (b) with
(c) than (d) then
4. Man does not live ____ bread alone.
(a) with (b) to
(c) by (d) in
5. We sailed ____ the river.
(a) in (b) on
(c) at (d) down
6. This is the supplement ____ the syllabus.
(a) of (b) for
(c) off (d) to
7. Arham aimed ____ the target and fired.
(a) to (b) at
(c) on (d) up
8. He called ____ him as soon as he landed in Islamabad.
(a) to (b) on
(c) by (d) for
9. All are equal ____ law.
(a) with (b) to
(c) before (d) in
10. We offer heartiest congratulations ____ your success.
(a) at (b) on
(c) upon (d) for
1. ALACRITY (n): Promptness in response, cheerful readiness
Synonyms: eagerness, enthusiasm, cheerfulness, alertness, briskness
Antonyms: hesitation, apathy, aversion, reservation, slowness
2. VERACITY (n): Conformity to facts; accuracy
Synonyms: truthfulness, accuracy, correctness, precision, probity
Antonyms: fallaciousness, falseness, falsehood, fictitiousness,
3. CONTRITE (adj): remorseful; showing regret
Synonyms: penitent, sorry
Antonyms: indifferent, unrepentant
4. LACONIC (adj): Brief and to the point; effectively cut short
Synonyms: concise, succinct, brief, compact, terse, pithy, brusque, curt
Antonyms: prolix, lengthy, loquacious, extended
5. TRUCULENCE (n): Defiant aggressiveness or cruelly
Synonyms: cruelty, brutality, mercilessness, sadism, viciousness
Antonyms: kindness, benevolence, compassion
6. FACETIOUS (adj): Cleverly amusing in tone
Synonyms: comical, humorous
Antonyms: serious, formal, grave, sober, sincere
7. EQUANIMITY (n): a calm state of mind; self-control
Synonyms: sangfroid, equilibrium, composure, calmness
Antonyms: discomposure, agitation, perturbation
8. ENERVATE (v): Render ineffective or inoperative; weaken
Synonyms: debilitate, tire, fatigue, weaken, exhaust
Antonyms: empower, activate, energise, invigorate
9. VITUPERATIVE (adj): Marked by harshly abusive criticism
Synonyms: scathing, blistering, scolding, abusive, insolent
Antonyms: complimentary, respectful, exalting
10. SOLICITOUS (adj): Showing hovering attentiveness
Synonyms: attentive, considerate
Antonyms: indifferent, unconcerned, inconsiderate
11. LATENT (adj): not presently active
Synonyms: dormant, idle, hidden, secret, invisible
Antonyms: learned, active, acquired, dynamic, manifest
12. RAPACIOUS (adj): Excessively greedy and grasping
Synonyms: voracious, ferocious
Antonyms: kind, moderate, gentle
13. BRUSQUE (n): rude of peremptory shortness
Synonyms: abrupt, blunt, terse, brisk
Antonyms: wordy, loquacious, garrulous, talkative
14. LUDICROUS (v): extravagantly humorous; resembling farce
Synonyms: facetious, witty, amusing
Antonyms: morose, serious, witless
15. NICETY (n): a fine or subtle detail or distinction
Synonyms: subtlety, nuance
Antonyms: vitiation, override
16. INCLEMENT (adj): severe and harsh
Synonyms: bitter, freezing, icy
Antonyms: fine, mild, sunny
17. PERORATION (n): concluding part of a speech
Synonyms: conclusion, summation, recapitulation, epilogue
Antonyms: prologue, introduction, foreword
18. TRICE (n): an instant (usually used as in a trice)
Synonyms: instant, jiffy, at once
Antonyms: delayed, long-term
19. INNOCUOUS (adj): not injurious to physical or mental health
Synonyms: inconsequential, inoffensive, harmless, inane
Antonyms: harmful, hurtful
20. VENIAL (adj): (of a fault or offence) slight and pardonable
Synonyms: condonable, tolerable
Antonyms: unforgivable, unpardonable, mortal
Pairs of Words
VERACITY: integrity, probity, verity
Sentence: They expressed doubts about the veracity of the story.
VORACITY: edacity, rapacity, avarice, insatiateness
Sentence: People are complaining of the voracity of the wolves as they attack hen coops.
MARSHAL: gather, assemble, muster, organize
Sentence: The king marshalled a formidable army.
MARTIAL: courageous, brave, valiant, valorous
Sentence: The British were very impressed by the martial spirit of the Gurkhas.
RECLUSE: hermit, ascetic, anchorite
Sentence: She has turned into a virtual recluse.
RECUSE: disqualify oneself, excuse, withdraw
Sentence: Justice Mehmood Mirza recused himself from hearing Nawaz Sharif’s case.
FLOUT: defy, disobey, violate,
Sentence: Retailers have been flouting the law by selling tobacco to under-16s.
FLAUNT: show off, brandish, vaunt
Sentence: He flaunts his riches like everyone in the business.
FACTITIOUS: bogus, fake, specious, counterfeit
Sentence: Brokers created a factitious demand for stocks.
FICTITIOUS: fictional, imaginary, improvised
Sentence: Since this is a fictitious character, the authors depict him as they please.
REVULSION: Intense aversion
Sentence: News of the attack will be met with sorrow and revulsion.
REVOLUTION: dramatic change, drastic alteration, sea change, metamorphosis
Sentence: There has been a revolution in printing techniques.
APPROBATION: approval, acceptance, recognition, commendation
Sentence: He yearned for popular approbation.
PROBATION: apprenticeship, traineeship, training, novitiate
Sentence: They were paid salaries after three months of probation.
COURTESY: politeness, civility, gentility, cordiality
Sentence: Customers deserve to be treated with courtesy.
CURTSEY: genuflection, obeisance
Sentence: “I apologize, my lord,” the girl said with a curtsy.
ECONOMIC: financial, monetary, pecuniary, budgetary, fiscal
Sentence: Pakistan has been crippled for months by the worst economic crisis in its history.
ECONOMICAL: cheap, inexpensive
Sentence: Pastures are an economical way to provide forage for animals.
FACILITATE: make easier, assist, help, aid, promote
Sentence: Working in pairs appears to facilitate learning
FELICITATE: congratulate, praise, commend, applaud
Sentence: The award winner was felicitated by the cultural association.