A Charonology of Quaid’s Life

December 25, 1876: Born in Karachi.

1883: Admitted to the Sindh Madrasatul Islam.

January 30, 1892: Sails for England.
1895: Called to the Bar from Lincoln’s Inn. London, UK.
1897: Enrolls as Advocate (OS) at the Bombay High Court.

May 4 November 3, 1900: Acted as Third Presidency Magistrate.

March 10, 1904: Elected Member, Bombay Municipal Corporation. Resigns March 1905.

December 1904: Attends a session of the Indian National Congress, in Bombay, for the first time.

December 1906: Elected as a delegate to the Congress party. His first public speech at a Congress session, supporting the resolution on ‘Validation of Wakf alal-aulad’ on December 27.

January 8, 1907: Elected Vice-President, Indian Mussalman Association, Calcutta.

August 2, 1909: Moves resolution calling on British rulers to consult Muslim leaders.

January 4, 1910: Elected to the Imperial Legislative Council.

February 25, 1910: Clashes with the Viceroy, Lord Minto, over South African cruelty to Indian labourers.

March 17, 1911: Introduces Wakf alal-aulad Validation Bill.

March 19, 1912: Supports G.K. Gokhale’s Elementary Education Bill.

December 31, 1912: Calls on the AIML to confer with Congress to negotiate a Hindu-Muslim settlement.

October 10, 1913: Enrolls as a member of the AIML.

May 1914: Nominated chief spokesman of the Congress delegation to London.

August 7-12, 1916: Defends Bal Gangadhar Tilak in the District Magistrate’s Court, Poona, against charges of sedition.

December 30-31: Presides over the AIML

1916: Session in Lucknow which approves the Congress’ League Lucknow Pact.

July 29, 1917: Presides over a Home Rule League meeting in Bombay, with Mrs Anne Besant and Tilak participating in it.

April 19, 1918: Marries Ruttenbai, daughter of Sir Dinshaw Petit.

December 11, 1918: Disrupts meeting in honour of Lord Willingdon on his departure.

March 28, 1919: Resigns from the Imperial Legislative Council in protest against the Rowlatt Act.

August 14-15, 1919: Birth of Dina Jinnah in London.

December 31, 1919: Elected permanent President of AIML.

October 25, 1920: Resigns from the Home Rule League (HRL), due to change in creed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, whom he himself had inducted into HRL.

December 28, 1920: Leaves Congress in disgust during the Nagpur Session, protesting against Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Resolution.

January 26, 1921: Protests inclusion of his name in list of politicians opposed to Non-cooperation.

April 20, 1921: Resigns from the Chairmanship of the Board of Directors of the Bombay Chronicle.

February 1922: Organises the Independent Party in the Indian Legislative Assembly, comprising 17 members.

March 31, 1923: Revives AIML after its eclipse by the Khilafat Conference.

November 14, 1923: Elected unopposed to the Indian Legislative Assembly.

February 18, 1924: Supports a resolution on grant of full self-governing dominion status to India, moved by Bepin Chandra Pal.

March 6,1924: Demands ‘Indiani-sation’ of the British Indian army.

March 24-25, 1924: Re-elected President of AIML whose members endorse his policies.

December 3, 1924: Submits a Minority Report on Reforms, opposing diarchy and calling for provincial autonomy.

February 17, 1925: Supports a resolution for establishment of a Supreme Court in India.

February 18, 1925: Supports a resolution for establishment of a Military College in India.

March 18, 1926: Pleads for extension of reforms to the NWFP.

February 18, 1927: Demands steps to make up the paucity of Sikh representation in government services.

March 20, 1927: Presides over an informal conference of Muslim leaders and finalises the Delhi Muslim Proposals.

May 16, 1927: AICC accepts Delhi Muslim Proposals at Bombay.

December 30, 1927: AICC ratifies acceptance of Delhi Muslim Proposals.

December 28-29, 1928: Jinnah’s ‘minimum six Muslim demands’ are steamrolled by the All Parties National Convention, at Calcutta, Called by Congress to approve the Nehru Report.

February 20, 1929: Death of Ruttie Jinnah in Bombay.

March 28, 1929: Presents ‘Fourteen Points’ at Delhi.

November 30, 1929: Visits Gandhi at Sabarmati Ashram along with Vithalbhai Patel, to arrange a Viceroy’ ­Gandhi meeting on the proposed Round Table Conference.

November 12, 1930: Participates in the First Round Table Conference in London.

January 12, 1931: Pleads for separation of Sind from the Bombay Presidency.

June’ November 1931: Decides to settle in London. Resigns from the Assembly. Attends Second Round Table Conference in London.

1932-35: Practices law in England, but keeps in touch with leading Indian Muslim leaders.

April 1934: Re-elected President of the re­united Muslim League, at a joint session of the two factions, at Delhi. Condemns the constitutional scheme with the exception of the Communal Award.

October 11, 1934: Returns unopposed to the Assembly, from the Bombay Muslim Constituency.

February 4-7, 1935: Jinnah’s three amendments in the Joint Parliamentary Committee Report are accepted by the Assembly, thereby ensuring retention of the Communal Award.

February-March 1935: Jinnah-Rajendra Prasad talks held to find a substitute for the Communal Award; talks failed to yield any concrete results.

February-March 1936: Visits Lahore to seek a solution to the Shahidganj Mosque dispute.

April 1, 1936: On the inauguration of the new province of Sind, states, ‘I sincerely hope that the two sister communities will wholeheartedly cooperate in the service of the province’.

April 9, 1936: Inaugurates the Jamiat-ul-­Ulema-i-Hind Conference, at Delhi.

April 11-12, 1936: Attends the AIML session in Bombay. Lays down AIML’s policy on the new constitution.

May 21, 1936: Sets up a 56-member Central Parliamentary Board to contest the upcoming provincial elections on an AIML ticker.

October 11, 1936: Launches election campaign in Lahore.

January 3, 1937: Referring to Nehru’s ‘two forces’ (the Government and the Congress) dictum, at a mammoth public meeting in Calcutta, states, ‘there is a third party in this country and that is Muslim India.

June 21 1937: In a letter, Iqbal suggests, in a letter to Jinnah that the only solution to the Hindu-Muslim problem is the division of India along the line of the Muslim majority provinces.

July 7, 1937: On the Congress decision to work the 1935 reforms, hopes that it would cooperate ‘with the Muslim party in the legislatures’, emphasizing that ‘the need of India is to create a unified front’.

July 28, 1937: AIML-Congress negotiations in the UP finally break down, with the Congress insisting on the AIML’s merger into the Congress.

September 16, 1937: Moves three amendments to the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Bill which are adopted by the Central Assembly.

October 13-18 , 1937: Accorded a rousing reception by 20,000 persons on arrival at Lucknow. Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan, Fazlul Haq and Sir Mohammad Saadullah Khan, the Premiers of Punjab, Bengal and Assam respectively, along with their followers, join the League. The green Islamic flag with crescent and star is hoisted over the League pandal for the first time. In his presidential address, Jinnah criticises Congress for imposing Hindi, Bande Mataram and the Congress flag as the national language, national song and national flag, and asserts that ‘the majority community have already shown that Hindustan is for the Hindus’.

October 19 , 1937: In a letter Gandhi characterises Jinnah’s Presidential address in Lucknow as ‘a declaration of war’.

October 26-27, 1937: Accorded a rousing welcome in Patna where he succeeds in getting all the Muslim parties to merge or coalesce with AIML.

December 26-28, 1937: Addresses mammoth public meetings at Howrah Maidan and Mohammad Ali Park, Calcutta. Presides over the first session of the All India Muslim Students Federation (AIMSF) at Calcutta.

February 18, 1938: On his call, Muslims throughout India observe Shahidganj Day.

April 4 , 1938: AIML representatives in the Central Assembly decide to form an AIML party in the legislature.

April 17-18, 1938: Presiding over the AIML special session in Calcutta, asserts that ‘the Muslim League claims the status of complete equality with Congress, or any other organisation’.

April 28, 1938: Gandhi-Jinnah talks on the communal question start in Bombay.

May 11, 1938: Meets with Subhas Chandra Bose, President of the Indian National Congress, in Bombay, to resolve the Hindu-Muslim question.

October 8-10, 1938: Presides over the Sindh Muslim League Conference at Karachi which calls for separate Hindu and Muslim federations.

November 18, 1938: On his call, Muslims commemorate ‘Kemal Day’ throughout India on the demise of Mustapha Kemal Pasha of Turkey.

December 2, 1938: Elected President for the following year unanimously by the AIML Council.

December 26-29, 1938: Presides over the 26th annual session of the AIML at Patna. Criticises the federal scheme, Congress ministries and the Congress high command. Addresses the AIMSF Conference.

February 8, 1939: At his call, Muslims observe ‘Palestine Day’.

March 16, 1939: Sends copies of the Pirpur Report and the Shareef Report to the Viceroy, Lord Linlithgow.

May 6, 1939: Declares in Bombay that the government should not settle the Federal issue with Congress alone.

July 30, 1939: In a statement, urges the Viceroy and HMG not to impose the Federal Scheme upon an unwilling India.

September 8, 1939: After meeting the Viceroy, states that ‘to win the war, Government should take Muslims into confidence’.

October 5, 1939: Meets with the Viceroy, along with Gandhi.

October 18, 1939: In a statement, HMG agrees to review the Act of 1935.

November 1, 1939: Confers with the Viceroy on a modus vivendi at the Centre, along with Gandhi and Rajendra Prasad.

November 3, 1939: Spells our Muslim demands for cooperation in the war effort in a letter to the Viceroy.

December 13, 1939: Demands the appointment of a Royal Commission to investigate Muslim grievances in Congress provinces.

December 22, 1939: AIML celebrates a ‘Day of Deliverance’ on the resignation of Congress ministries.

January 19, 1940: Jinnah’s article in Time and Tide (London) explains the AIML stand.

March 22-24, 1940: Presides over the historic AIML session in Lahore, calling for the partition of India.

April 19 , 1940: At his call, Muslims celebrate the ‘Day of Declaration’, to confirm the Lahore Resolution.

November 1, 1940: Declares that the observance of Muslim Countries Day on November 1 was meant to strengthen bonds of brotherhood between Indian Muslims and other Muslim countries.

November 14, 1940: Inaugurates the Delhi MSF Conference in Delhi.

March 10, 1941: Presiding over the Aligarh Students Union, states, ‘Aligarh is the arsenal of Muslim India and you are its soldiers’.

March 23, 1941: Calls on Muslims to celebrate Lahore Resolution Day.

March 25, 1941: Pleads for Pakistan in a meeting with Sir Stafford Cripps.

April 12-15, 1941: Presides over the 28th session of the AIML in Madras. Amendment passed in the AIML Constitution, making the Lahore Resolution its supreme objective.

April 18, 1941: Meets with leaders of the Justice Party, Madras. Explores possibility of cooperation for attainment of common interests.

July 22, 1941: Disapproves expansion of the Viceroy’s Executive Council and the National Defence Council.

July 30, 1941: Threatens disciplinary action against six AIML members who joined the viceroy’s expanded Executive Council and the National Defence Council.

September 11, 1941: Presides over the AIML Working Committee meeting, which welcomes the resignation of the Premiers of Punjab, Bengal and Assam from the National Defence Council.

October 11, 1941: Dawn, an English weekly, founded in Delhi, to espouse the Muslim cause in India.

December 26, 1941: Presides over the fifth annual session of the AIMSF, at Nagpur.

January 2, 1942: In an interview, warns HMG against a departure from the August 8, 1940, Declaration.

February 15, 1942: Criticises the Hay Ministry of Bengal in his presidential address to the Bengal Provincial Muslim League Conference at Sirajganj.

March 6, 1942: In a telegram to the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, states that any constitution without the AIML’s approval would be unacceptable.

April 3-6, 1942: Presiding over the 29th session of the AIML at Allahabad, declares that whatever proposals Sir Stafford Cripps might make, AIML would not accept anything less than Pakistan.

April 13, 1942: Explains, at a press conference, why the AIML had to reject the Cripps Proposals offered by the HMG.

August 8, 1942: Characterises the Congress Working Committee’s ‘Quit India’ resolution as a repetition of its old plan of establishing ‘Hindu raj or a Hindu majority government.

October 4, 1942: In reply to Dr Ziauddin Ahmad, refuses to receive the honorary degree, saying, ‘I have lived as plain Mr Jinnah and I hope to die as plain Mr Jinnah.

June 4, 1943: At a press conference in Karachi, states that the AICC resolution of August 8, 1942, was ‘a declaration of war’ against the Muslim League.

July 3-4, 1943: Attended the Balochistan Muslim League Conference in Quetta.

July 20, 1943: An assassination attempt by Rafiq Sabir, a Khaksar fails due to his [the Quaid’s] alertness.

August 23, 1943: Writes to Lord Linlithgow on political conditions in Kashmir.

December 20-26: Presides over the 31st session of the AIML in Karachi.
States that ‘Karachi will be the gateway for Pakistan’. Declares the Quran to be ‘the sheet anchor of Muslim India’.

March 10, 1944: In a speech in Ali-garh, calls for raising the status of women.

April 18, 1944: Receives the CR formula on partition from Rajagopalachari.

April 27, 1944: Jinnah-Khizr Hayat Khan Tiwana talks in Lahore end in failure.

April 30, 1944: Punjab Muslim League Conference in Sialkot repudiates Tiwana.

September 9-27, 1944: Gandhi-Jinnah talks in Bombay break down. Correspondence released.

January 22, 1945: Repudiates Liaquat-Desai talks on formation of a reconstituted Viceroy’s Council.

June 25-July 14, 1945: Attends Simla Conference. States that opposition to AIMLs right to nominate all the Muslims on the Viceroy’s Council led to the failure of the Conference.

July 16, 1945: Appeals for funds to contest elections.

August 6, 1945: First contribution to the Muslim League Election Fund is presented at Bombay. States, ‘Give me silver bullets and I will do the job’.

August-September 1945: In response to his appeal several top ranking Congress and Unionist’ stalwarts join the Muslim League.

October 12, 1945: In a statement, supports Indonesia’s struggle for independence.

December 4, 1945: Elected to the Central Legislative Assembly.

January 11, 1946: Muslims observe Victory Day, to celebrate the Muslim League’s one hundred per cent success in central assembly elections.

February 24 1946: In a telegram, congratulates Punjab Muslims and PML President, Nawab of Mamdot, on ML’s success in provincial polls.

April 4, 1946: Meets the Cabinet delegation.

April 7-9, 1946: Presides over the Muslim Legislators’ Convention, at Delhi, where the Lahore Resolution (1940) is amended to call for ‘a sovereign independent state’, comprising six provinces in north-west and north-east India.

May 12, 1946: Sends to the Cabinet delegation, AIML constitutional proposals.

May 19, 1946: Cabinet Mission Plan announced.

June 4-6, 1946: AIML Council accepts May 19 Cabinet Mission Plan.

June 29, 1946: AIML Council withdraws acceptance due to Jawaharlal Nehru’s July 10 Bombay Press Conference statement that Congress was not bound by any clause of the Cabinet Mission Plan, specially with regard to the grouping of provinces, and decides upon Direct Action to wrest Pakistan.

August 15, 1946: Meets Jawaharlal Nehru in Bombay on formation of the Interim Government.

August 16, 1946: AIML observes Direct Action Day. Great Calcutta killings begin.

September 2, 1946: An all-Congress Interim Government sworn in Muslim India observes ‘Black Day’ and hoists black flags everywhere.

September 29, 1946: The Nawab of Bhopal induces Gandhi to accept the AIML as representative of all Indian Muslims.

October 25, 1946: The AIML, led by Liaquat Ali Khan, joins the Interim Government.

November 1946: Killings in Bihar State resulting in the death of 30,000 Muslims with 15,000 made homeless.

December 9, 1946: AIML boycotts the Constituent Assembly called in New Delhi.

December 19, 1946: Jinnah meets Mufti Aminul Husayni and Egyptian leaders in Cairo.

January-February 28, 1947: Muslim League Civil Disobedience Movement initiated in Punjab against the Tiwana Ministry.

February 20, 1947: The Muslim League launches a Civil Disobedience Movement against the Khan Sahib Ministry in the NWFP.

March 4, 1947: Master Tara Singh’s speech sparks riots in Punjab.

April 5, 1947: First meeting with the new Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten.

April 15, 1947: Jinnah-Gandhi joint appeal issued for peace.

April 20, 1947: Denounces, in a statement, the proposed dissection of Bengal and Punjab, and considers it a ‘grave error’.

June 2, 1947: Along with Liaquat and Nishtar, attends leaders’ conference, presided over by the Viceroy. HMG’s Plan for partition circulated.

June 3, 1947: Partition Plan announced. Acceptance of the Mountbatten Plan is broadcast.

June 9-10, 1947: AIML Council endorses June 3 Partition Plan.

June 25, 1947: Issues statement appealing to the Shahi Jirga, Balochistan, and non-official members of the Quetta Municipality to vote for Pakistan.

June 26, 1947: Issues statement appealing to the Muslims of Sylhet to vote for Pakistan.

July 5, 1947: Liaquat Ali Khan informs Lord Mountbatten that Jinnah would be Governor-General of Pakistan.

July 26, 1947: Formation of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly.

August 11, 1947: First Session of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. Elected President. Outlines policies and principles to govern Pakistan.

August 12, 1947: Liaquat Ali Khan moves resolution that Jinnah be known as Quaid-e-Azam (Leader of the Nation).

August 14, 1947: Transfer-of-Power ceremonies held. Mountbatten transfers power to the Constituent Assembly on behalf of HMG.

August 15, 1947: Sworn in as Governor-General of Pakistan. Appoints the first cabinet, headed by Liaquat Ali Khan.

August 28, 1947: Participates in the Lahore Conference of Governors General and Prime Ministers.

August 31, 1947: In a talk broadcast from Lahore, states ‘The Boundary Award may be unjust but it is binding on us’.

October 11, 1947: Addresses joint meeting of civil and armed forces officers.

November 1, 1947: Discusses the Kashmir issue with Lord Mountbatten.

December 8, 1947: Protests against the UN decision to partition Palestine, in a letter to Truman.

December14-15, 1947: Presides over the last meeting of the AIML Council at Karachi, which decides to split the AIML into two independent and separate bodies. With this, his tenure as AIML president comes to an end.

January 25, 1948: Addressing the Karachi Bar Association states that Islamic principles are as applicable to our lives today as they were 1,300 years ago.

January 30, 1948: Sends a condolence message on Gandhi’s assassination.

February 1948: In a talk broadcast to the US, states that the Pakistan constitution would be ‘a democratic type, embodying the essential principle of Islam’, but ‘is not going to be a theocratic state’.

March 21, 1948: Addresses mammoth public meeting in Dacca. Declares that Urdu would be the State language of Pakistan.

March 26, 1948: Addresses a civic reception at Chittagong; recommends social justice and Islamic Socialism.

April 27, 1948: Addresses members of the Karachi Chamber of Commerce.

June 14, 1948: Addresses Staff College, Quetta.

July 1, 1948: Performs the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan, the last public function he attends. Calls for evolving banking practices compatible with Islamic ideals of social and economic life.

July 14, 1948: Moves to Ziarat for health reasons.

August 13, 1948: Moves back to Quetta to convalesce.

August 14, 1948: Issues Independence Day message.

September 1, 1948: His health deteriorates.

September 11, 1948: Dies in Karachi.

September 12, 1948: State funeral.

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