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This Month in History (November)

According to the Georgian calendar, November is the eleventh month of the year. In the early Roman calendar, it was the ninth month. The Roman Senate elected to name the eleventh month for Tiberus Caesar, and since Augustus time, it has had only 30 days. Originally, there were 30 days, then 29, then 31.

November comes between the fall and winter months. The leaves are almost completely gone from the trees, and the rest have lost most of their color. The Anglo-Saxons referred to November as the ‘wind month’ and the ‘blood month’ – probably because this is the month they killed their animals for food.

Lots of activities come to a halt in November. The crops have been harvested and either put in storage, or sent to processing plants or mills. Farmers already know if their year has been successful or not. Football is the main sport of the month. The weather is usually beautiful for this kind of sport.

The topaz is the birthstone for November.
The chrysanthemum is the flower for the month of November.

What happened in History in this month?

November1:
Revolution Day Algeria
Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel paintings were first exhibited, 1512
A “Stamp Act” riot occurred in New York City, 1765
The first medical school for women opened in Boston. The Boston Female Medical School was founded by Samuel Gregory with just twelve students. In 1874, the school merged with the Boston University School of Medicine, becoming one of the first co-ed medical schools. 1848 .
The United States Weather Bureau began its operation, 1870
Ghadar Party formed at San Francisco (1914).
The Bra was patented (1914)
No-Confidence move against Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto failed.(1989)

November2:
Peter the Great becomes Emperor of Russia (1721)
Haile Selassie was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia. (1930)
Iskander Mirza was exiled (1958)

November3:
Independence Day of Panama and Dominica.
King Henry VIII became Supreme Head of the Church of England following the passage of the Act of Supremacy by Parliament.(1534)
First Opium War between China and Britain begins. (1839)
The Bank of Italy became the Bank of America.( 1930)
Clarence Birdseye marketed frozen peas (1952)
The Soviet Union launched the spacecraft, Sputnik Two.( 1957)
Panama declared itself independent of Colombia following a revolt engineered by the U.S. (1903)

November4:
Abraham Lincoln married Mary Todd (1842)
Richard Gatling patented his first rapid-fire machine-gun which used revolving barrels rotating around a central mechanism to load, fire, and extract the cartridges. (1862)
The first electrified underground railway system was officially opened in London. (1890)
During World War II, British troops led by Bernard Montgomery defeated the Germans under Erwin Rommel at El Alamein after a twelve-day battle. (1942)
About 500 young Iranian militants stormed the U.S. Embassy in Teheran, Iran, and took 90 hostages, including 52 Americans that they held captive for 444 days.( 1979)
Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated as he left a peace rally in Tel Aviv. (1995)

November5:
Anniversary of the failed “Gunpowder Plot” to blow up the Houses of Parliament and King James I.( 1605)
Aviator C.P. Snow completed the first transcontinental flight across America, landing at Pasadena, California. He had taken off from Sheepshead Bay, New York, on September 17th and flew a distance of 3,417 miles.(1905).
The stereo radio was introduced( 1955)
Farooq Ahmed Leghari dissolves National Assembly sacking Premier Benazir Bhutto. Malik Mairaj Khalid becomes care-taker prime minister. 1996

November6:
Abraham Lincoln elected President of the United States (1860)
The first animated electric sign in the United States was mounted by the New York Times around the top of the Times Building, Times Square, New York City. It was used to report the presidential election returns, and was called the “zipper” because of the way it circled the building. (1928)
Nawaz Sharif elected Prime Minister, securing 153 votes. 1990

November7:
Cartoonist Thomas Nast depicts Republican party as an elephant in a cartoon in Harper’s Weekly. (1874)
The state of Colorado (USA) granted its women the right to vote.(1893)
A protest parade was held in Chicago whereby 40,000 men demonstrated against the closing of saloons on Sunday.( 1915).
Russian Bolsheviks overthrew the provisional government of Alexander Kerensky in Petrograd. The Council of People’s Commissars was then established as the new government of Russia, with Nikolai Lenin as chairman, Leon Trotsky as foreign commissar and Josef Stalin as commissar of nationalities. This event was celebrated each year in the former USSR with parades, massive military displays and public appearances by top Soviet leaders. (1917)
Students’ demonstrations start throughout the country that later led to resignation of General Auyb Khan. 1968
The East German government resigned after pro-democracy protests. (1989)-
Mary Robinson became Ireland’s first female president. (1990 ).
Birthday – Polish chemist Marie Curie (1867-1934) was born in Warsaw, Poland. In 1903, she and her husband received the Nobel Prize for physics for their discovery of the element Radium.

November8:
The French museum, the “Louvre” was opened to the public.( 1793)
Montana became the 41st State of USA (1889)
X-rays (electromagnetic rays) were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen at the University of Wuerzburg in Germany. (1895)
President Franklin D. Roosevelt forms the Civil Works Administration to help create jobs for millions of workers unemployed during the Great Depression. (1933)
Birthday – Pioneering heart surgeon Christiaan Barnard (1922-2001) was born in Beaufort West, Cape of Good Hope Province, South Africa. He headed the surgical team that achieved the first-ever human heart transplant in 1967.

November 9:
Iqbal Day.
Independence Day of Cambodia.
Giant Pandas are discovered in China (1927)
East Germany opened its borders with the West (1989)

November 10:
The United States Marine Corps was created. (1775)
Hirohito was crowned Emperor of Japan. He was Imperial Japan’s Emperor during World War II. Following Japan’s defeat, he was allowed to stay and remained Emperor until his death in 1989. (1928 )
Following the British victory at El Alamein in North Africa during World War II, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill stated, “This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.” (1942)
Direct dial telephone service is first available coast to coast. (1951)
Sesame Street premiered on PBS television (1969)
The Edmund Fitzgerald and it’s entire crew is lost during a storm on Lake Superior. (1975)
US President Bush meets President Musharraf in New York and assures additional aid of one billion dollar. 2001
Birthday – Reformation founder Martin Luther (1483-1546) was born in Eisleben, Saxony. In 1517, Luther tacked his 95 Theses on the door of Wittenberg’s castle church asserting the Bible should be the sole authority of the church, and calling for reformation of the Roman Catholic Church.
Birthday – Actor Richard Burton (1925-1984) was born in Pontrhydyfen, South Wales (as Richard Jenkins). The son of a coal miner, he came to be regarded as one of the greatest acting talents of his day, although he never received an Oscar and was never knighted. He led a tempestuous personal life, highlighted by twice marrying actress Elizabeth Taylor. He died at age 58 of a cerebral hemorrhage.

November 11:

Independence Day of Angola & Rhodesia.
Forty one Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower sign a compact calling for a “body Politick” just off the Massachusetts coast. (1620)
Dir and Chitral States accede to Pakistan. (1947)
Egypt and Israel signed a cease-fire agreement sponsored by the U.S.(1973)
In Russia, Boris Yeltsin was removed as Moscow Communist Party chief for criticizing the slow pace of Soviet reform. (1987)
Celebrated in the U.S. as Veterans Day (formerly called Armistice Day) with parades and military memorial ceremonies.
Birthday – Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881) was born in Moscow. Best known for The Brothers Karamazov, Crime and Punishment and The Idiot.
Birthday – World War II General George S. Patton (1885-1945) was born in San Gabriel, California. In 1942, he led the Allied task force that landed at Casablanca in North Africa. He commanded the U.S. 7th Army during the invasion of Sicily, then received worldwide attention and an official reprimand for slapping a hospitalized soldier suffering from battle fatigue. After D-Day, he led the U.S. 3rd Army across France and into Germany. He died at Heidelberg, Germany on December 21, 1945, of injuries from an automobile accident.

November 12:
National Day of Saurdi Arabia & Comoros.
A major eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy began, lasting several months. (1867 )
Adolf Hitler was arrested in Germany after the failed Beer Hall Putsch. (1923)
During World War II in North Africa, The city of Tobruk was captured by the British Eighth Army under General Bernard Montgomery. (1942)
Japanese General Hideki Tojo and six others were sentenced to death by an Allied war crimes tribunal. (1948)
The U.N. General Assembly suspended South Africa over its policy of apartheid.( 1974 )
The space shuttle Columbia was launched for the 2and time. This was the first time a space vehicle was used more than once. (1981)
In Russia, Yuri Andropov was elected First Secretary of the Soviet Communist party following the death of Leonid Brezhnev. (1982).

November13:
The Holland Tunnel under the Hudson River opens to the public, connecting New York City and New Jersey. (1927)
In USA, The minimum draft age was lowered from 21 to 18 (1942)
General Charles De Gaulle was appointed president
of the French provisional government.(1945)
Artificial snow was first used by skiers (1946)
The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation on public buses was unconstitutional. (1956)
Khwaja Nazimuddin becomes Governor-General of Pakistan. 1948
Punjab city of Montgomery renamed Sahiwal. 1966
Carl Stokes became the first African American mayor in the U.S., elected mayor of Cleveland, Ohio.(1967)
A state of emergency was declared in Britain after power workers and coal miners began work slowdowns. (1973)
The Vietnam War Memorial was dedicated in Washington, D.C.( 1982)
Farooq Laghari elected eighth President of Pakistan. 1993
Israel began pulling its troops out of the West Bank city of Jenin, ending 28 years of occupation. (1995)

November14:

World Diabetes Day.
The first experimental blood transfusion took place in Britain, utilizing two dogs. (1666)
Scottish explorer James Bruce discovered the source of the Blue Nile on Lake Tana in northwest Ethiopia. (1770)
The first streetcar went into operation (1832)
Yale University goes Co-ed. (1968)
The first paying passengers traveled on the new rail service through the Channel Tunnel linking England and France.(1994)
Birthday – Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) was born in Allahabad, India. He spent over 20 years working with Mahatma Gandhi to free India from British rule. Following independence in 1947, Nehru became India’s first prime minister, serving until his death in 1964.

November 15:
The Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation. (1777)
Brazil became a republic. (1989)
During the Holocaust, Heinrich Himmler ordered Gypsies and part-Gypsies to be sent to concentration camps. The number of Gypsies killed by Nazis is estimated up to 500,000.(1943)
The largest antiwar rally in U.S. History occurred as 250,000 persons gathered in Washington, D.C., to protest the Vietnam War. (1969)
Pope John Paul II visited West Germany, the first papal visit to Germany in 200 years. (1980)
Birthday – American artist Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) was born in Sun Prairie, Wisconsin. She painted desert landscapes and flower studies and was the subject of more than 500 photographs taken by her husband, photographer Alfred Stieglitz.
Birthday – German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel (1891-1944) was born at Heidenheim, in Wurttemberg, Germany. During World War II, he led the 7th Panzer Division to victory in the Battle of France. His early victories in North Africa earned him the nickname, “Desert Fox.” However, in 1943, he was defeated at El Alamein by the British under General Montgomery. Rommel was implicated in the July 1944 failed assassination of Hitler. He was then forced to commit suicide and died at age 52 on October 14, 1944, near Ulm, Germany.
Birthday – Dr. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute announced his discovery of leukocytes, or white corpuscles, which are agents in the blood that prevent the spread of infection. (1923)

November16:
International Tolerance Day.
Hungary was proclaimed an independent republic following the break up of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.(1918)
President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced the U.S. and Soviet Russia had resumed diplomatic relations, suspended since 1919. (1933)
The Space Shuttle Columbia completed its first flight (1982)
General elections held. PPP wins 92, IJI secures 54. 1988
South African President F.W. de Klerk announced the abandonment of the Separate Amenities Act, thus opening the country’s beaches to all races.(1989)
The United Nations charged Bosnian Serb leader, Radovan Karadzic, and his military commander, Ratko Mladic, with genocide. (1995)
After completion of 5 years, National Assembly dissolved, Catetaker government of Muhammad Mian Soomro took oath. 2007

November17:
World Peace Day.
Queen Elizabeth I ascended the throne of England at the age of 25, reigning until 1603 when she was 69. Under her leadership, England became a world power, defeating the Spanish Armada, and witnessed a golden age of literature featuring works by William Shakespeare, Edmund Spenser and others. (1558)
The U.S. Congress met for the first time in the new capital at Washington, D.C. President John Adams then became the first occupant of the Executive Mansion, later renamed the White House. (1800)
The Suez Canal was formally opened after more than 10 years of construction. (1869)
Death of Lala Lajpat Rai.(1928)
The Third Round Table Conference begins in London  (!932)
General Gamal Abdel Nasser became Egyptian head of state after forcing out General Mohammed Naguib. (1954)
Synthetic diamonds were first manufactured. (1959)
Birthday – German mathematician August Mobius (1790-1868) was born in Schulpforte, Germany. He worked in the area of analytic geometry and was a pioneer in topology, the study of geometric figures that remain constant even when twisted or distorted.
Birthday – British General Bernard L. Montgomery (1887-1976) was born in St. Mark’s Vicarage, Kennington Oval, London. He led the British Eighth Army to a major victory over the Germans at El Alamein in North Africa in 1943. He then led the Eighth Army in the Sicilian and Italian campaigns and commanded all ground forces during D-Day.

November18:
William Caxton printed the first book in the English language, The Dictes and Sayengis of the Phylosophers. (1477)
A Connecticut school teacher, Charles F. Dowd, proposed a uniform time zone plan for the U.S. consisting of four zones. (1883)
United States Roman Catholic bishops did away with the rule against eating meat on Fridays. (1966)
South Africa adopted a new constitution after more than 300 years of white majority rule. The constitution provided basic civil rights to blacks and was approved by representatives of the ruling party, as well as members of 20 other political parties. (1993)
Birthday – German composer Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826) was born in Eutin, Germany. He founded the German romantic style of music. Best known for his operas including Der Freischutz.
Birthday – Photography inventor Louis Daguerre (1789-1851) was born in Cormeilles, near Paris. In 1839, at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, he announced his daguerreotype process, the first practical photographic process that produced lasting pictures.
Birthday – British author Sir William Gilbert (1836-1911) was born in London. He wrote the verses for the famed Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas which poked fun at the British establishment. Among their operas; H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, Iolanthe, The Mikado and The Yeoman of the Guard. He died in May 1911, suffering a heart attack while attempting to save a woman from drowning.
Birthday – Polish pianist Ignacy Jan Paderewski (1860-1941) was born in Kurylowka in southwestern Russia. He achieved world fame for his interpretations of Schubert and Chopin. After World War I, he served briefly as the first premier of the Republic of Poland.

November19:
Independence Day of Monaco.
Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address. (1863)
The Russian Army began a massive counter-offensive against the Germans at Stalingrad during World War II. (1942)
The first news reports emerged that American troops in Vietnam had massacred civilians in My Lai Village back in March of 1968.(1969)
The biggest mass suicide in history occurred as Reverend Jim Jones led over 900 followers to their deaths at Jonestown, Guyana. Members of his “Peoples Temple” religious cult were ordered to drink a cyanide-laced fruit drink. Those who refused were forcibly injected. Precipitating the tragedy a day earlier, California Congressman Leo J. Ryan, along with four associates and several reporters, had been shot to death during an ambush at a nearby airstrip. They were attempting to return home after investigating the cult’s remote jungle location. Jones and his mistress killed themselves after watching his entire membership die. Only a few cult members managed to escape. (1978)
The Cold War came to an end during a summit in Paris as leaders of NATO and the Warsaw Pact signed a Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe, vastly reducing their military arsenals. (1991)
Birthday – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) was born in Allahabad, India. She served from 1966-75 and later from 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated by her own bodyguards as she walked to her office.
Birthday- Actress Jodie Foster born 1962

November20:
Universal Children’s Day.
Renowned poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz passes away. 1984
Ford quit making the unpopular Edsel (1959)
The first use of tanks in battle occurred at Cambrai, France, during World War I. Over 300 tanks commanded by British General Sir Douglas Haig went into battle against the Germans. (1917)
The Cuban Missile Crisis concluded as President John F. Kennedy announced he had lifted the U.S. Naval blockade of Cuba stating, “the evidence to date indicates that all known offensive missile sites in Cuba have been dismantled.” (1962)
Photograph’s on passports were first required. (1914)
The Nuremberg Nazi war crimes trial began. (1945)
Princess Elizabeth, married Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh.( 1947)
Birthday- Actress Bo Derek born 1956

November21:
World Television Day.
Inventor Thomas A. Edison announced the invention of his phonograph. (1877).
The first free balloon flight took place in Paris as Jean Francois Pilatre de Rozier and Marquis Francois Laurent d’Arlandes ascended in a Montgolfier hot air balloon. Their flight lasted about 25 minutes and carried them nearly six miles at a height of about 300 feet over Paris. Benjamin Franklin was one of the spectators. (1783)
Birthday – French author and philosopher Voltaire (1694-1778) was born in Paris (as Francois-Marie Arouet). He was an advocate of human rights who published the landmark Philosophical Letters in 1734. Other writings include; Zadig, The Century of Louis XIV, The Russian Empire under Peter the Great, The Philosophical Dictionary, and Essay on Morals.

November22 
Independence Day of Lebanon.
Portuguese navigator Vasco Da Gama, leading a fleet of four ships, became the first to sail round the Cape of Good Hope, while searching for a sea route to India. (1497)
Allama Sayed Sulaiman Nadvi, well-known scholar and historian, passes away in Karachi. 1953
President John F. Kennedy, the youngest person to become a U.S. president, is assassinated in Dallas ,Texas as his motorcade travelled through the city. (1963)
India launches full-scale attack on East Pakistan. 1971
Juan Carlos was sworn in as King of Spain, following the death of General Franscisco Franco who had ruled as dictator since 1939. (1975)
Birthday – Charles De Gaulle (1890-1970) was born in Lille, France. He led the Free French against the Nazis during World War II and later became President of France, serving from 1958-69.
Birthday – Barnstorming aviator Wiley Post (1898-1935) was born in Grand Plain, Texas. He was a self-taught pilot who became an international celebrity in the 1930s and co-authored Around the World in Eight Days. In 1935, Post and his friend Will Rogers began a flight to the Orient, however, the plane crashed near Point Barrow, Alaska, killing both of them.

November23: 
A patent is issued for the horseshoe manufacturing machine. (1835)
The color photograph process was patented.(1863)
The first issue of “Life” magazine, created by Henry R. Luce, was published. (1936)
Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali sworn in as Prime Minister. 2002

November 24:
Charles Darwin’s book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was first published, theorizing that all the living creatures descended from a common ancestor.(1859)
Joseph Glidden patented his invention of barbed wire.(1874)
Pakistan wins Hockey Champion Trophy at Lahore, defeating Australia. 1978
In Czechoslovakia, mass demonstrations resulted in the resignation of the entire presidium and secretariat of the Czechoslovak Communist Party.(1989)
The U.S. military departed the Philippines after nearly a century of military presence. In 1991, the Philippine Senate had voted to reject a renewal of the lease for the American military base. (1992)
Birthday – Motivational lecturer Dale Carnegie (1888-1955) was born in Maryville, Missouri. Best known for his 1936 book How to Win Friends and Influence People which sold millions of copies and was translated into 29 languages.

November25:
Independence Day of Suriname.
International Day for Elimination of Violence against Women.
The British Army evacuates New York City. ( 1783)
A patent was issued for evaporated milk.(1884)
First International Islamic Economic Conference opens in Karachi1949
Nawaz Sharif returned Pakistan after 7 years of forced exile. 2007

November26:
World Water Falls Day.
The first lion was exhibited in America (1716)
During the Holocaust, Nazis began walling off the Jewish Ghetto in Warsaw, sealing in 400,000 inhabitants while denying them adequate food, sanitation and housing. (1940)
President Ayub Khan inaugurates Pakistan Television Lahore Station. 1964
Malik Amir Muhammad, Nawab of Kalabagh is shot dead. 1967
After an absence of 21 years, the International Olympic Committee voted to re-admit China.(1979)
Birthday – Harvard College founder John Harvard (1607-1638) was born in London.
Birthday – American physician and women’s rights leader, Mary Edwards Walker (1832-1919) was born in Oswego, New York. She was the first female surgeon in U.S. Army, serving during the Civil War. She was captured and spent four months in a Confederate prison. In 1865, she became the first and only woman ever to receive the Medal of Honor.

November27:
The first successful Boeing 707 flight occurred. (1962)

November28:

Independence Day Albania and Mauritania.
Panama declared itself independent from Spain and joined the fledgling nation of Gran Colombia.(1821)
Lady Nancy Astor was elected as the first female in the British House of Commons. (1919)
The first skywriting display occurred (1922)
The “Grande Ole Opry “debuts on radio. (1925)
Disney’s Steamship Willie premieres – Mickey Mouse is “born”!
The Teheran Conference began, attended by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin. Among the major topics discussed, a second front in Western Europe, resulting in D-Day, the seaborne invasion of Normandy in northern France on June 6, 1944.(1943)
Birthday – German socialist Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) was born in Barmen, Wuppertal, Germany. He was an associate of Karl Marx and edited the second and third volumes of Marx’s Das Kapital.

November29:
International Day of Solidarity with Palestinian People.
Independence Day of Albania and Turkey.
American explorer Richard Byrd and Bernt Balchen completed the first airplane flight to the South Pole.(1929)
Coffee rationing started in the United States during WWII, 1942
Palestine was partitioned into Jewish and Arab land by the U.N. General Assembly, resulting in the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel the following year. (1947)
Forty-one years of Communist rule came to an end in Czechoslovakia.(1989).

November 30:
Independence Day Barbados.
National Day of Benin.
Republic Day of Chad.
The United Stated and Great Britain sign a peace treaty in Paris, formally ending the Revolutionary War. (1782)
Wireless transmission of photographs from London to New York City was demonstrated by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA). It took about 20-25 minutes for each photograph to be transmitted.(1924).
Finland was invaded by more than 20 Russian divisions in the Winter War. (1939).
First Round Table Conference begins in London to consider the report of the Simon Commission.(1930)
Local bodies election held throughout the country. 1987
Birthday – Winston Churchill (1874-1965) was born in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire, England. Before World War II, he held a number of high level political offices in Britain including First Lord of the Admiralty. In May 1940, he became Prime Minister, stating, “I have nothing to offer but blood, tears, toil, and sweat.” His inspirational speeches, combined with his political skills and military strategy carried Britain through the war, and helped the Allies overcome the Nazi onslaught and defeat Hitler.

By: Zaheer Ahmad Anjum

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