Pakistan is a consociational society where different religious groups are in conflict with each other on petty issues. There are many horizontal and vertical cleavages in Pakistan that keep people divided on the basis of religion, caste, creed, status and language along with everlasting lacuna between haves and have-nots. These cleavages are not only undermining Pakistan’s economic system but are also causing socio-political instability. In this age of globalization, media has exacerbated the crises and made Pakistan more vulnerable by disseminating disinformation, besides fabricated and manipulated stories.
Pakistan is a pluralistic society. It was attained on the basis of religion. Therefore, religion is considered important by all though Quaid-i-Azam believed that every individual in Pakistan would be free to live and worship according to his own religion. Untimely demise of the founder of Pakistan, and assassination of the first premier, pushed Pakistan into quagmire of crisis. It includes religious, linguistic, regional, provincial and cultural conflicts.
1. Dysfunctional Political System
Security threats always increase when political system becomes dysfunctional. At present, Pakistan’s democratic, political system is passing through another critical phase. All system capabilities are at the state of abeyance thus making it vulnerable to collapse.
Politically, Pakistan is very much unstable owing to its weak political institutions, and low profile system capabilities.
Jean Blondel defines institutions as: extractive, regulative, distributive, symbolic, and responsive. According to Blondel, extractive capability means that a political system should have the ability to extract its economic and natural resources at domestic and international levels. For example, collection of taxes at home and to bring more investments from abroad depicts that extractive capability is active.
2. Unplanned Modernization
Globalization has pierced into Pakistan’s social, political and economic systems. Luxury hotels, restaurants are sprawling in all corners of Pakistan. Shops of personal computers, laptops, Android phones, and internet service providers exist everywhere in Pakistan. It shows that western companies have captured a lucrative market here and their ever-available products have more value and credibility in this country. The country, however, by itself though rich in computers and agriculture, lacks in electricity and water sources.
3. Sense of Alienation
Inefficient system capabilities are making Pakistan very much vulnerable at home. Alienation among common people is increasing due to misuse use of power by the authorities.
4. Mediaâ€™s Pole
Media is another big reason of this security threat. Media houses are run by moguls and conglomerates who have only one-point agenda i.e. profit maximization. Fabricated and manipulated stories on various channels are helping extremist elements. It is causing migration of dreams and relative deprivation among common people also.
Luxurious life styles in their dramas, films and catchy advertisements attract people but their meager resources deny buying all that stuff, therefore, they feel deprived and cause disturbance in the system.
5. Politics: A Business
Unfortunately, Pakistan lacks professional politicians; we only have political demagogues who always convince people with their glib of tongue. Empirical studies expose that in our country, candidates and voters are selfish. A candidate always works for his election to the parliament by hook or by crook and voter always casts the vote to the candidate who can go with him to the police station at the time of his ordeal or could arrange a job for him or for his kins. This selfish attitude makes our system selfish that does not go well for the welfare of the whole.
6. Religious Disharmony
The genesis of religious ethnicity in Pakistan can be found in different domestic and external perspectives and factors. First, a heterogeneous character of Pakistani society, where Muslims are predominant along with other minority groups like Christians, Sikhs, Hindus, Parsis, and Ahmedis. All these communities are considered as religious ethnic groups in the country.
7. Rise of Non-state Actors
The unbridled sectarianism, religious intolerance and ethnicity in Pakistan have given birth to non-political actors to act irrationally and in chauvinistic manners. They also have very much influence in the peripheral areas of Pakistan. At times, they seem to even challenge the authority of the state and successive governments could not curb their activities.
8. Philosophical Dichotomy
Dichotomy between the educated elites and ulema â€” who are usually not well versed with modern education â€” is another reason of this fiasco. Both belong to the same socioeconomic and political conditions but they are unable to present a unanimous solution for the development of the country because they are unaware about of the real essence of religion
Illiteracy among masses has compelled them to be exploited by the so-called ulema who exploit religion for their bread and butter. Innocent and ignorant masses are unaware about the reality of religion and easily start following the beliefs given to them by mullahs. Ultimately this blind faith in them leads to ethnic conflicts that has a heavy toll on their lives and belongings.
10. Foreign Interference
Foreign intelligence agencies cause conflicts in many states. India, Afghanistan and Israel bribe certain religious ethnic groups in rival states and cause disintegration in those states. The Indian intelligence agency, Research Analytical Wing (RAW), always indulges in orchestrating destructive activities in Pakistan.
1. Government of Pakistan should try to understand the basic needs of different religious ethnic groups and should provide them opportunities accordingly.
2. The economic resources of the country should also be shared equally as to satisfy the demands of all.
3. Rift between different sects and religions should be minimized by fulfilling their needs and demands in time.
4. Extremist religious parties should be banned.
5. Education system should inculcate in students a sense to live in harmony with the people of other religions.
6. All efforts should be directed to ensure peoples’ participation in political process of the country
7. Democracy, in letter and spirit, must be the basis for country’s political and administrative system.
8. Fast and easy dispensation of justice should be ensured across the country without any discrimination.
9. Constitution of Pakistan should be implemented and abided fully, not in parts.
10. By all continuation of a robust economic system is the direst need of the hour.
In this age of globalization, old and outdated gimmicks won’t be, at all, sufficient to cope with the threats faced by Pakistan. Equality, fraternity and justice, glorious pristine canons of Islam, should be adopted by all of us. It is high time for us to consider that panacea of all our ills lies in developing democratic institutions, specialization of functions, sustainable human development that are only possible in good governance which can only be achieved through independence of judiciary and rule of law.
Tolerance towards other communities is sine qua non for all individuals. It will boost national consensus and enhance solidarity among peoples. On the part of the state, it is indispensable to perform its duties efficiently without any biased and egoistic approach. Unless rule of law is observed in Pakistan, internal security threats will remain even in this age of globalization.