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Punjab The Heartbeat of Pakistan

Geographical Features

Punjab is the second largest province of Pakistan in terms of area. Its total area is 208,064 sq. km with a population density of approximately 450/km2 (1,200/sq mi).

Borders    Bordering territory
Northeast    Kashmir (Azad Kashmir and Indian-occupied Kashmir)
East    Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan
South    Sindh
Southwest    Balochistan
West    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
North    Islamabad Capital Territory
Bahawalpur that covers 24830 km2 of the province’s land is the largest district by area whereas Lahore with only 1722 km2 area is the smallest district in Punjab.

Districts
There are 36 districts in Punjab. An alphabetical list of these districts with their respective area is as follows:
District    Area    District    Area
Attock     6857    Lodhran    2778
Bahawalnagar    8878    Mandi Bahauddin    2673
Bahawalpur    24830    Mianwali    5840
Bhakkar    8153    Multan    3720
Chakwal    6525    Muzaffargarh    8249
Chiniot    2643    Nankana Sahib    2719
D.G. Khan    11922    Narowal    2337
Faisalabad    5857    Okara    4377
Gujranwala    3622    Pakpattan    2724
Gujrat    3192    Rahimyar Khan    11880
Hafizabad    2367    Rajanpur    12318
Jhang    6166    Rawalpindi    5285
Jhelum    3587    Sahiwal    3201
Kasur    3995    Sargodha    5854
Khanewal    4349    Sheikhupura    5960
Khushab    6511    Sialkot    3016
Lahore    1772    Toba Tek Singh    3252
Leiah    6291    Vihari    4364

Did you know?
In 1955, due to the rising tensions between East and West Pakistan, Punjab lost its province status. In 1972, however, following the secession of East Pakistan and formation of Bangladesh, it regained its standing as a province.

Dams
Dungi Dam, Rawal Dam, Namal Dam, Misriot Dam and Tanaza Dam

Important: Small Dams Organisation (SDO) of the Irrigation and Power Department constructed 20 dams including Jalwal Dam, Thatti Syedan Dam, Jabba Dam, Dharabi Dam, Ughan Dam, Fatehpur Dam, Phalina Dam, Shah Habib Dam and Gurha Uttam Singh Dam, during the year 2000 and 2010 to irrigate more than 27,000 acres of land.

Barrages & Headworks
Balloki Headworks, Chashma Barrage, Islam Barrage, Jinnah Barrage, Khanki Headworks, Marala Headworks, Panjnad Barrage, Qadirabad Headworks, Rasul Barrage, Sidhnai Headworks, Sulemanki Headworks, Taunsa Barrage and Trimmu Barrage

Politics
The provincial capital of Punjab is Lahore. Under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan, the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab consists of 371 seats, with 297 general seats, 66 seats reserved for women and 8 for non-Muslims.

Mian Manzoor Ahmad Wattoo remained the chief minister of the Punjab thrice. Both Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif and his brother Mian Muahammad Shahbaz Sharif have occupied the office for two terms each.

Important:
The Assembly Building was designed by Bazel M. Salune, chief architect of the Architecture Circle of Punjab. While its foundation stone was laid by Sir Jogindar Singh, Minister of Agriculture, in November 1935 during the British Raj.
‘Lt. General Mohammed Attiqur Rahman and Malik Ghulam Mustafa Khar are the only two people to remain the Governor of Punjab twice.
‘Lt. General Khalid Maqbool has the honour to be the Governor for the longest time.

Culture
The pentapotamia of the Greek historians and the land of sufis and poets, Punjab is home to cultural diversity and distinguishing physical features. Although it is the most populous province yet is so diverse in culture that within a district sometimes there is more than one dialect of the local language. Former Punjab governor Hanif Ramay acknowledge this diversity in his widely acclaimed Punjab ka Muqadma. The Punjab derives its name from the Persian words Panj (Five) and Ab (Water). This refers to the five tributaries of the Indus River; Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej that flow through the province.

Famous Sufi Poets
Baba Fariduddin Ganjshakar, Bulleh Shah, Ghulam Farid, Shah Hussain, Sultan Bahu, Shah Sharaf, Nausha Ganj Bakhsh, Hafiz Barkhudar, Hashim Shah, Waris Shah, Mian Muhammad Bakhsh and others.

Famous Personalities

Military
General (R) Tikka Khan, General (R) Zia ul Haq, General (R) Asif Nawaz Janjua, General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani.
General (R) Muhammed Akbar Khan was the first Muslim to become a General in British Indian Army.

Nishan-e-Haider Recipients
Muhammad Sarwar Shaheed, Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed, Raja Aziz Bhatti  Shaheed, Rashid Minhas Shaheed Minhas, Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed

The Victoria Cross winner, Khudadad Khan Minhas, is also the son of Punjab.

Navy
Admiral Tariq Kamal Khan, Admiral Mansurul Haq, Admiral Abdul Aziz Mirza, Admiral Muhammad Afzal Tahir, Admiral Noman Bashir and

Air Force
Air Marshal Nur Khan, Air Chief Marshal Zulfikar Ali Khan, Air Chief Marshal Farooq Feroze Khan, Air Chief Marshal Mushaf Ali Mir, Air Chief Marshal (R) Kaleem Saadat, Air Chief Marshal Tanvir Mahmood Ahmed, Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman and Air Chief Marshal Tahir Rafique Butt
Dr Abdus Salam, the only Pakistani Nobel Laureate also hails from Punjab’s city Jhang.

Folktales
The folktales of Punjab include Mirza Sahiban, Sayful Muluk, Yusuf Zulekha, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, Dulla Bhatti and Sassi Punnun.
Some Important & Historical Places in Punjab

Forts
Lahore Fort, Derawar Fort, Multan Fort, Rohtas Fort, Cholistan Desert Forts including Mirgarh Fort, Jamgarh Fort, Mojgarh Fort, Khangarh Fort, Khairgarh Fort, Nawankot Fort, Bijnot Fort

Tombs
Jehnagir’s Tomb, Asif Jahs Tomb, Noor Jahan’s Tomb, Anarkali’s Tomb, Allama Iqbal’s Tomb, Dai Anga’s Tomb, Qutb u Din Aibak’s Tomb

Archaeological Sites
Harappa, Taxila

Languages & Dialects
The main languages, spoken in Punjab, is Punjabi and its major dialects; Saraiki, Mewati and Potowari. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by inhabitants of the both Indian and Pakistani inhabitants. Punjabi is unusual among modern Indo-European languages because it is a tonal language. Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 12th century and Fariduddin Ganjshakar is generally recognized as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.

It is interesting to note according to a report published by a famous British newspaper ‘The Independent’ on’ Jan 30, 2013, Punjabi has been revealed as the third most spoken language in the United Kingdom after English and Polish, according to 2011 census data released by the Office of National Statistics.

Polish is now the main language spoken in England and Wales after English and Welsh, followed by the south Asian languages of Punjabi, Urdu, Bengali and Gujarati and then by Arabic, French, Chinese and Portuguese.

Chronology of Important Events
The history of Punjab dates back to the Indus civilization. The region has been invaded and ruled by many different empires and races including the Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Afghans, and Mongols.

The population of Punjab had been pre-dominantly Hindu with large Buddhist minorities before it was conquered by Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 AD. He was the first to bring the message of Islam to the region. It was later spread through the teachings of various Sufi saints. The Mughals controlled the region from 1524-1739. It was their reign that saw the construction of the great architectural wonders such as the Badshahi Mosque and the Shalimar Gardens.

In 1469 AD, Guru Nanak was born at Talwandi, now in Pakistan. Soon he became famous across Punjab and thousands of people started following his teachings. His followers were called the “SIKHS”.

Undoubtedly, the most popular Sikh warrior and ruler of Punjab is Maharaja Ranjeet Singh. He was born on Nov. 13, 1780 at Gujranwala and was crowned on 12 April 1801 as the Maharaja of Punjab. He was the founder of the Sikh Empire which existed till 1849. He fought against the Durranis of Afghanistan. After driving them out of Punjab, he and his Sikh army then invaded Pashtun territories in what is now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. He captured Multan which encompassed the southern parts of Punjab, Peshawar, Jammu and Kashmir

After his death in 1839, the Sikh kingdom started declining and the British took over it. By virtue of its geo-political position, Punjab was one of Great Britain’s most important assets in colonial India allowing it to execute control over the numerous princely states that made up the country. The British rule saw a series of measures being introduced including the introduction of western education, a new revenue system and the establishment of a new administrative system.
However, the increasing resentment of the people towards their colonial masters brought Punjab at the center of the rising rebellion. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 took place in Amritsar and following the Pakistan Resolution of 1940, Punjab was at the heart of the independence struggle of modern day Pakistan. During the partition of India in 1947, most of the Muslim dominated areas went on to form the present day province of Punjab while the Sikh and Hindu dominated regions formed the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.

Twin Cities of Punjab

Lahore
Following international cities have been
declared twin towns and sister cities of Lahore.

Istanbul, Turkey,  Sariwon, North Korea
Xi’an, China, Kortrijk, Belgium
Fez, Morocco, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Samarkand, Uzbekistan, Isfahan, Iran
Mashad, Iran, Glasgow, Scotland
Chicago,United States, Belgrade, Serbia
Fresno, United States, Krakow, Poland
Coimbra, Portugal, Hounslow, United Kingdom
Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Bogot, Colombia
Córdoba, Spain, Amol, Iran

Rahim Yar Khan
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Cairo, Egypt

Faisalabad
Manchester, England, Kobe, Japan
C³rdoba, Spain, Wuhan, China
Kanpur, India, Tabriz, Iran
Los Angeles, USA

Gujar Khan
Redditch, England

Multan
Rome, Italy, Konya, Turkey
Banten Province, Indonesia, Rasht, Iran

Sahiwal
Rochdale, United Kingdom

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