Oct. 3 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Oct. 4 Nobel Prize in Physics
Oct. 5 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Oct. 6 (possible date) Nobel Prize in Literature
Note: According to tradition, the exact date for this prize is only announced shortly before it is presented. However, it very often falls on the Thursday ahead of the peace prize.)
Oct. 7 Nobel Peace Prize
Oct. 10 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
Note: The economics prize is often referred to as the Nobel Economics Prize but was only established in 1968 and was not part of the original group of awards set out in dynamite tycoon Alfred Nobel’s 1895 will.
A list of researchers tipped to win the 2016 Noble Prizes has been published.
The work, by Thomson Reuters, looks at the citations of scholars to highlight those whose work has the most influence. This year it features 24 scientists from five different countries who, they say, are likely to be noticed by the Nobel committee.
Angus Deaton wins 2015 Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences
The system has successfully predicted 39 Nobel prizewinners since 2002. But not all prizes were won in the year they were predicted.
Each year three possible winners are predicted for the physiology or medicine, physics, chemistry and economics prizes ahead of the official Nobel Prize announcements.
Possible candidates for this year’s chemistry prize include George Church, of Harvard Medical School, and Feng Zhang, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for the application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing in mouse and human cells. The patent rights to this are currently subject to a battle at the US Patent and Trademark Office.
As usual, researchers from universities in the US dominate the list. More than 15 of the 24 researchers work at US institutions.
Five researchers based at Harvard University are listed as potential winners, with its Medical School alone providing two of the top-cited candidates in the physiology or medicine and chemistry categories. MIT is home to four of the hotly tipped academics.
Only one academic at a UK university features on the list – Brazilian Celso Grebogi, a professor at the University of Aberdeen’s Institute for Complex Systems and Mathematical Biology. He is earmarked as a potential winner for the physics prize alongside two others from the University of Maryland, College Park for their work describing a control theory of chaotic systems, known as the OGY method.
Just one other academic at a European university features on the list, Michael Hall, from the University of Basel in Switzerland, who is flagged up in the physiology or medicine category with two others for discoveries in the field of cell growth.
Three academics working at Asian institutions are listed, two from Japan and one from Hong Kong.
Last year, Thomson Reuters’ analysts successfully predicted two Nobel prizewinners. These were Arthur McDonald of Queen’s University in Canada, who won the prize for physics alongside Takaaki Kajita of the University of Tokyo, Japan, for the discovery of neutrino oscillations. The other was Angus Deaton, a Scottish academic working at Princeton University, who won the economics prize for his analysis of consumption, poverty and welfare.
The 2016 Nobel Prize announcements begin on Monday 3 October.
Alfred Nobel’s Will
Signed on November 27, 1895.
I, the undersigned, Alfred Bernhard Nobel, do hereby, after mature deliberation, declare the following to be my last Will and Testament with respect to such property as may be left by me at the time of my death:
To my nephews, Hjalmar and Ludvig Nobel, the sons of my brother Robert Nobel, I bequeath the sum of Two Hundred Thousand Crowns each;
To my nephew Emanuel Nobel, the sum of Three Hundred Thousand, and to my niece Mina Nobel, One Hundred Thousand Crowns;
To my brother Robert Nobel’s daughters, Ingeborg and Tyra, the sum of One Hundred Thousand Crowns each;
Miss Olga Boettger, at present staying with Mrs Brand, 10 Rue St Florentin, Paris, will receive One Hundred Thousand Francs;
Mrs Sofie Kapy von Kapivar, whose address is known to the Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank in Vienna, is hereby entitled to an annuity of 6000 Florins Ö.W. which is paid to her by the said Bank, and to this end I have deposited in this Bank the amount of 150,000 Fl. in Hungarian State Bonds;
Mr Alarik Liedbeck, presently living at 26 Sturegatan, Stockholm, will receive One Hundred Thousand Crowns;
Miss Elise Antun, presently living at 32 Rue de Lubeck, Paris, is entitled to an annuity of Two Thousand Five Hundred Francs. In addition, Forty Eight Thousand Francs owned by her are at present in my custody, and shall be refunded;
Mr Alfred Hammond, Waterford, Texas, U.S.A. will receive Ten Thousand Dollars;
The Misses Emy and Marie Winkelmann, Potsdamerstrasse, 51, Berlin, will receive Fifty Thousand Marks each;
Mrs Gaucher, 2 bis Boulevard du Viaduc, Nimes, France will receive One Hundred Thousand Francs;
My servants, Auguste Oswald and his wife Alphonse Tournand, employed in my laboratory at San Remo, will each receive an annuity of One Thousand Francs;
My former servant, Joseph Girardot, 5, Place St. Laurent, Châlons sur Saône, is entitled to an annuity of Five Hundred Francs, and my former gardener, Jean Lecof, at present with Mrs Desoutter, receveur Curaliste, Mesnil, Aubry pour Ecouen, S.& O., France, will receive an annuity of Three Hundred Francs;
Mr Georges Fehrenbach, 2, Rue Compiègne, Paris, is entitled to an annual pension of Five Thousand Francs from January 1, 1896 to January 1, 1899, when the said pension shall discontinue;
A sum of Twenty Thousand Crowns each, which has been placed in my custody, is the property of my brother’s children, Hjalmar, Ludvig, Ingeborg and Tyra, and shall be repaid to them.
The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: the capital, invested in safe securities by my executors, shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind. The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses. The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical work by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm, and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting. It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, but that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be a Scandinavian or not.
As Executors of my testamentary dispositions, I hereby appoint Mr Ragnar Sohlman, resident at Bofors, Värmland, and Mr Rudolf Lilljequist, 31 Malmskillnadsgatan, Stockholm, and at Bengtsfors near Uddevalla. To compensate for their pains and attention, I grant to Mr Ragnar Sohlman, who will presumably have to devote most time to this matter, One Hundred Thousand Crowns, and to Mr Rudolf Lilljequist, Fifty Thousand Crowns;
At the present time, my property consists in part of real estate in Paris and San Remo, and in part of securities deposited as follows: with The Union Bank of Scotland Ltd in Glasgow and London, Le Crédit Lyonnais, Comptoir National d’Escompte, and with Alphen Messin & Co. in Paris; with the stockbroker M.V. Peter of Banque Transatlantique, also in Paris; with Direction der Disconto Gesellschaft and Joseph Goldschmidt & Cie, Berlin; with the Russian Central Bank, and with Mr Emanuel Nobel in Petersburg; with Skandinaviska Kredit Aktiebolaget in Gothenburg and Stockholm, and in my strong-box at 59, Avenue Malakoff, Paris; further to this are accounts receivable, patents, patent fees or so-called royalties etc. in connection with which my Executors will find full information in my papers and books.
This Will and Testament is up to now the only one valid, and revokes all my previous testamentary dispositions, should any such exist after my death.
Finally, it is my express wish that following my death my veins shall be opened, and when this has been done and competent Doctors have confirmed clear signs of death, my remains shall be cremated in a so-called crematorium.
Paris, 27 November, 1895
Alfred Bernhard Nobel
Nobel Laureates who Declined the Prize
Jean-Paul Sartre, awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature, declined the prize because he had consistently declined all official honours.
Le Duc Tho, awarded the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. They were awarded the Prize for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord. Le Doc Tho said that he was not in a position to accept the Nobel Peace Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason.
Forced to Decline the Nobel Prize!
Four Nobel Laureates have been forced by authorities to decline the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three German Nobel Laureates, Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk, from accepting the Nobel Prize. All of them could later receive the Nobel Prize Diploma and Medal, but not the prize amount.
Boris Pasternak, the 1958 Nobel Laureate in Literature, initially accepted the Nobel Prize but was later coerced by the authorities of the Soviet Union, his native country, to decline the Nobel Prize.
Pakistan-born Nobel Laureates
- Subramanyan Chandrasekhar (Physics, 1983) Born on 19 October 1910 in Lahore.
- Abdus Salam, (Physics 1979), Born on 29 January 1926 in Jhang.
- Malala Yousafzai, (Peace, 2014) Born on 12 July 1997 in Mingora.