1. Introduction

2. Good Governance and Its Indicators

3. Importance of Good Governance for a Country

  • Importance for the Economic Sector
  • Importance for the Political Sector
  • Importance for the Social Sector


Yes! The following facts are a proof of the governance crisis of Pakistan:

  • General public’s shattered trust in government
  • Absence of the culture of accountability at all levels
  • Lack of transparency in the functioning of public organizations
  • Prevalence of procrastination and red tape in day to day government functioning
  • Inadequate participation of general public in decision making
  • Persistent existence of the evil of corruption
  • Absence of rule of law
  • Highly unbalanced development and growth

5. Major Causes of the Deplorable Situation of Governance in Pakistan

  • Frequent derailment of democracy
  • Impotent and puny judiciary
  • Absence of free and mature media
  • Short sighted and self-centered approach of politicians
  • Failure of educational institutes to produce good citizens
  • Excessive Politicization of public sector
  • Dismal performance of the Watch Dog Institutes
  • Presence of lacunas and flaws in the criminal justice system


  • Enactment of laws
  • Establishment of monitoring organizations and committees
  • Introduction of internal checks and controls
  • Deliberation for the introduction of civil services reforms

7. Recommended Reforms for Institution Building and Improved Governance in Pakistan

  • Active role of politicians, media and civil society to safeguard the democracy
  • Independent and responsible role of Judiciary
  • Prudent and mature role of media
  • Introduction of civil reforms to improve the performance of bureaucracy
  • Introduction of technology in the public sector
  • Reformation of Watch Dog Institutes
  • Necessary statutory amendments to improve the criminal justice system

8. Conclusion

Some words about Introductory Paragraph

  1. An introductory paragraph has three parts: Starting Sentences, Thesis Statement and the Hook Sentence.
  2. The primary objective to be achieved through Starting Sentences is to attract the attention of the examiner and to arouse his interest in the essay. There are different techniques and styles of writing these sentences like historical review, anecdotal, surprising statement, famous person, declarative, question, humour, quotation, etc. It is always advisable that you learn all the techniques and styles which can be used for starting sentences, and use the one on which you get the best command in the actual examination. Always bear in mind that it is not at all necessary — or even required — to load the starting sentences and the introductory paragraph with difficult words only to make them eye-catching. You can create a heart-touching piece of writing without going for even a single uncommon word. It is no less than a blunder to compromise clarity for expressing that you have a strong vocabulary.
  3. Thesis Statement determines the direction and scope of the essay. Although, the Statement can be given anywhere in the Introductory Paragraph, yet, in my opinion, the most suitable place for it is close to the end of the paragraph. Thesis statement may be as short as one sentence and as detailed as three to four sentences. After having read Thesis Statement, the examiner would have no doubts as to what the overall direction of the essay would be. Do write Thesis Statement in as clear and unambiguous words as possible. Writing Thesis Statement is an art that deserves exhaustive practice before the examination.
  4. Hook Sentence is the last sentence of the Introductory Paragraph and connects it with the one that follows. After reading the Hook Sentence, the examiner gets an idea of what is going to be discussed in the next paragraph.
  5. Introductory paragraph is one amongst the few parts of the essay, which play a major role in building or destroying your image with the examiner. You should, therefore, pay special focus on the practice of writing Introductory Paragraphs. It is also suggested that you do this practice under the supervision of a seasoned and capable mentor so that flaws or weaknesses, if any, are overcome well before the examination.
  6. Introductory paragraph, generally, is written in inverse pyramid style, that is, discussion in the start is broad based which gradually narrows down toward the topic and finally becomes sharply focused on the direction and scope of the topic in the Thesis Statement.
  7. There is no rule of thumb to specify the length of the Introductory Paragraph. Many factors including your writing style, dimensions of the answer sheet, nature of the topic, etc. may affect its length. At one time, it may be spread over three-fourth of a page while at one and a half pages, at the other.

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