NOTE: (i) PART ‘II is to be attempted on separate Answer Book.(ii) Attempt all questions from PART-II
2. Make a precis of the passage and suggest a suitable heading:
Pride & Unhappiness
There are many causes of unhappiness all having something common. A typical unhappy man gives undue importance to some earlier deprivation and makes his life one sided. To him, the achievement is more important than other aspects. A very miserable person may find refuge in forgetfulness and deify pleasure. A temporary suicide, brings negative happiness. Some people adopt wrong ways to achieve happiness and lose all hope except in intoxication. They should be convinced of the desirability of happiness. Those who take pride in unhappiness are irrational. Very few persons will prefer to be unhappy if happiness is possible. There have always been wise men who have supposedly explored life thoroughly and found it purposeless. Such men attribute their unhappiness to tragic human situation in the universe, though some people doubt their unhappiness because, to them, enjoying misery is not being miserable.
3. Answer the questions:
- Knowledge is acquired when a new experience is successfully made a part of our old experiences. It is in terms of concepts transferable through words or symbols. Understanding comes when we forsake an old experience to make room for our new contact with reality. It is conceptual and cannot be passed on
- Understanding cannot be passed on as it is an individual and in a way mysterious feeling regarding an event or situation. We cannot create in the minds of other persons the same feelings which we experience/ ourselves.
- Understanding cannot be communicated to others whereas the knowledge of understanding is communicable. This can be possible through speech, writing or other symbols.
- Understanding is a personal feeling and experience of something which cannot be conveyed to others. Knowledge is based on concepts and can be passed on to others through speech, words or symbols.
- We entirely agree with the author in his definitions of knowledge and understanding. These definitions are based on logic and good sense. He sounds very convincing and scientific in his analysis of knowledge and understanding.
4. Write a comprehensive note (250 ‘300 words)
Child is the father of man Child is the father of man, so said the celebrated English poet William Wordsworth. Indeed, a seed of the oak or the banyan tree is so tiny but in a matter of years it is transformed into a huge tree. Perhaps the same is true for human beings. Modern scientists are inclined to state that genes, or rather the X and Y chromosomes are the real father of man. The genetic term includes both men and women. Hence, we would use the term Manâ to include members of both sexes. The basic idea is that infancy is the quintessential part of a man’s life. The characteristics and propensities of the infant get crystallized and transformed into the personality and character of the same grown-up person.
Dr. S. Freud, the eminent psychologist, theorized that early childhood lays the foundation and determines the course of a child’s personality. The whole theory of psychoanalysis focuses on the early childhood of a person. Dostoevsky was convinced that criminal or negative tendencies in the principal characters of his novels were due to adverse environmental factors in childhood. He believed that if any bad deed was to be committed before a child, it would leave a lasting impression on it and may even plant the seeds of delinquency at a later stage. A child needs a healthy environment to grow up in, as the values and qualities it imbibes in childhood go a long way towards shaping its personality subsequently. Later at school, the knowledge imparted to the child and the qualities instilled in it have a bearing on its adult life. Society too has a role to play in ensuring that the child is shown the right way. Thus, the child has the latent qualities to do all those thing done by the grown-up. Natural inclinations and aptitudes do become manifest in childhood. Sending out signals of what the future holds in store for the child. Through perseverance, tenacity and plain good sense we can recognize and bolster the child’s innate strengths and teach it right from wrong. There is a saying morning shows the day. Similarly, a child shows the adult. In other words, a child gives birth to an adult. That is what Wordsworth meant when he said, Child is the father of man.
5. (a) Use only five of the following sentences which illustrate their meaning:
- He accused him of dishonesty without any proof. Later he had to eat his words.
- Either marry her yourself or let me marry her. Don’t be a dog in the manger.
- Our car collided with a tree but all of us were miraculously unhurt. It was a close shave.
- In an unguarded moment I told him the secret of her marriage. It was a Freudian slip.
- Instead of being a help, the new manager has become a wet blanket for the staff.
(b) Use only five of the following pair of words in sentences which illustrate their meaning.
Assay: He was a brave person who always tried to assay the impossible.
Essay: This is a substandard essay.
Envelope: Put these currency notes in an envelope.
Envelop: We saw mountain peaks enveloped in thick mist.
Decree: The District Magistrate issued a decree banning kite-flying.
Degree: He has lost his M.A. degree.
Desolate: We passed through a desolate moorland.
Dissolute: Her husband turned out to be a dissolute person.
Wet: My clothes got wet in the rain.
Whet: The trip to Paris has whetted my appetite for travel.
6. (a) Correct only five of the following:
(i) Please speak to the concerned clerk.
Please speak to the clerk concerned. (correct)
(ii) You have got time too short for that.
You have got too short a time for that. (correct)
(iii) Not only he was a thief, but he was also a murderer.
He was not only a thief, but also a murderer. (correct)
(iv) They thought that the plan would be succeeded.
They thought that the plan would succeed. (correct)
(v) It is unlikely that he wins the race.
It is unlikely that he win the race. (correct)
(vi) My uncle has told me something about it yesterday.
My uncle told me something about it yesterday. (correct)
(vii) I hoped that by the time I would have got there it would have stopped raining.
I hope that by the time I got there it would have stopped raining. (correct)
(viii) They prevented the driver to stop.
They prevented the driver from stopping. (correct)
(b) Change the narration from direct to indirect or indirect to direct speech.
(i) I couldn’t get into the house because I had lost my key, so I had to break a window, he said.
He said that he couldn’t get into the house because he had lost his key, so he had to break a window. (indirect)
(ii) Would you like to see over the house or are you more interested in the garden? She asked me.
She asked me if I would like to see over the house or whether I was more interested in the garden. (indirect)
(iii) Please send whatever you can spare. All contributions will be acknowledged immediately, Said the Secretary of the disastrous fund.
The Secretary of the disastrous find requested then to send whatever they could spare adding that all contributions would be acknowledged immediately. (indirect)
Note: Disastrous fund is absolutely wrong English. It should be disaster fund. It is a sad reflection on the knowledge of the paper-setter appointed by the commission. Each year the English paper contains three to four blunders. This is a gross injustice to the candidates who lose marks because of the blunders committed by the paper-setter. It is high time the commission took notice of it and appointed competent paper-setters. (Prof. Muzaffar Bokhari)
(iv) She asked if he’d like to go to the concert and I said I was sure he would.
She said to me Will he like to go to the concert? I said, I am sure he will. (indirect)
(v) I told her to stop making a fuss about nothing and said that she was lucky to have got a seat at all.
I said to her, Stop making a fuss about nothing. You are lucky to have got a seat at all. (indirect)
(vi) The teacher said, You must not forget what I told you last lesson. I shall expect you to be able to repeat it next lesson by heart.
The teacher told them that they must not forget what he had told them last lesson. Adding that he would expect them to be able to repeat it next lesson by least. (indirect)
Note: This is again an incorrect sentence. We don’t say ‘What I told you last lesson’ OR to be able to repeat it next lesson. How sad!! (Prof. Muzaffar Bokhari)
(vii) He asked me if he should leave it in the car.
He said to me,’Shall I leave it in the car? (indirect)
He said to me, Should I leave it in the car? (indirect)
(viii) He said, ‘May I open the window? It’s rather hot in here.
He asked me if he might open the window, adding that it was rather hot in these. (indirect)