- Democracy in Pakistan
- Our Judicial System
- Pakistan’s Economic Conditions
- Population Explosion
- Education in Pakistan
- Energy Crisis
- Global Warming
- Disaster Management
- Women Empowerment
- The need for Tolerance
Outline of the Important Essays
Points to develop:
- Concern for environment has increased and spread over recent years
- Pollution’ a major environmental concern.
- What is pollution?
- Types, sources and effects of pollution
- Causes and associated problems
- Remedial measures’ existent and suggested
Points to develop:
- Women have for long occupied a secondary place in relation to men.
- Position of woman has changed over them; from a relatively free status, she slowly came to be subordinated to man because of physical and environmental factors.
- Women have been viewed in extreme ways’ goddess or devil. This is typical of feudalism. Home is considered as her confined existence. Patriarchy reinforces this view as universally correct.
- Women empowerment means that they should break free of the mould set by patriarchal norms.
- Mere legislation and constitutional provisions are not enough; true emancipation is required at individual levels.
- Legislative means can, however, be a short-term remedy or facilitator.
- It is only through empowerment of women that development of a society and the nation is possible.
Role of Judiciary in a Democracy
Points to develop:
- Concept of separation of powers in a democracy
- Independent judiciary a must in a democracy; how the idea grew and developed
- Role of the judiciary ‘judge the validity of laws passed; decide on the right and wrong of executive actions; uphold the Constitution and resolve constitutional deadlocks and dilemmas
- Judicial verdicts have brought down rulers in a democracy.
- Limitations on judiciary
- The Pakistani situation
- Summing up
Corruption in Public Life
If two or more persons meet together and start talking about the present society of Pakistan, they soon come to the conclusion that every system, every institution of Pakistan is infested with corruption. Corruption has become so common in public life that people are now averse to thinking of public life without this phenomenon.
But what does corruption actually mean? Corruption means perversion of morality, integrity, character or duty out of mercenary motives (e.g. bribery) without regard to honour, right or justice. In public life, a corrupt person is one who bestows undue favour on someone with whom he has monetary or other interests (e.g. nepotism). Simultaneously, those who genuinely deserve those things as their right remain deprived.
Not a new phenomenon
Corruption in public life is not a modern phenomenon. It was prevalent in the political and civic life of even Maurya period as has been discussed by Chanakya in the Arthashastra. (Give other examples)’ But it is only recently that corruption has become rampant in our public life. People no longer protest against corrupt practices, fight injustice or express any shock when big scandals are exposed.
Also corruption is not a uniquely Pakistani phenomenon, it is witnessed all over the world (USA, Japan, Italy, etc.)
Forms of corruption in Pakistan
Explain bribery, nepotism, theft and wastage of public property, dereliction of duty, etc.
Extent of corruption
Start with a hospital where a child is born and move further on to education-system, career opportunities, political system, judiciary, law and order, other day-to-day activities till post-mortem report.
Results of corruption
Individual sufferings, people lose faith in the existing system, prevalence of chaos and anarchy, society disintegrates, country becomes weak, foreign invasion may occur.
Causes of corruption
It is a vicious circle. Start with those politicians who run the state, come down to higher officials then to the lowest wrung of bureaucratic hierarchy. Lastly, come to the general people who elect the corrupt people as their representatives and expect special favours from them.
How to eradicate corruption
A comprehensive code for ministers, members of legislature and political parties, and such code should be strictly enforced; judiciary should be given more independence and initiative; law and order machinery should be allowed to work without political interference; a voluntary organisation at national level should be established to break the vicious circle.
Our entire system is bound to collapse if we do not rise to the occasion and face the glaring truth with courage, foresight and patience.
Science: Blessing or Curse?
Impact of science on humanity is undeniable. On the face of it, science and its inventions appear to be an unalloyed blessing. However, if we ponder a little, disturbing signs too appear.
How a blessing?
Effect on material well-being and mental attitudes; advantages of scientific discoveries in daily life’ gadgets to remove drudgery; electricity, communications, transport, entertainment, computes; health’ medicine, preventive and curative, control of disease and epidemic; industry, agriculture and economic development ‘improvement of means of production and productivity. As for mental attitude’ scientific perspective banishes obscurantism and superstition; develops questioning spirit, objective outlook.
How a curse?
Each of the blessings cited above has a dark side to it’ a curse. Material well-being has led to crass materialism and consumer culture; discoveries of science have also produced weapons and means of destruction; use of scientific and technological means of production and comforts has degraded environment, caused pollution; new diseases resistant to drugs keep coming up; technological devices meant for health field misused to kill’ foeticide, for instance; spirit of inquiry and positivism, if carried too far, can suppress essential humanity and actually restrict the free range of thought and imagination; gadgets and inventions can make man dependent and, in fact, kill his creativity.
So, is science a blessing or a curse? It would do well to recall what Milton said in a different context’ the mind is its own place, it can make a hell of heaven, or a heaven of hell. Science is, in fact, amoral; what man makes of it is man’s responsibility. Man can use it creatively or destructively, turn it into a blessing or get crushed under its curse.
The World Needs More Tolerance
Tolerance is the only real test of civilisation: it was Arthur Kelps who thus extolled the virtue of tolerance. Man in the 20th century believes he and any struggle meaningful is idealism. One must try and strive for something. A goal is essential to prompt someone to keep trying. And as the recipe says ‘salt according to taste’ so one must flavour any struggle with idealism’ too much or too little could have drastic effects.
Each one of us has the potential to realise things we never dreamed ourselves capable of. We simply have to make a beginning and try in right earnest and we will discover the value behind the truism’ Try, try again. The tortoise did not know it was going to win against the hare but it was willing to try. The odds against it were tremendous but it made the impossible possible by just risking a try.