Dr Munawar Sabir
A simple but important reality is that creation of cities is called civilization. In this regard, Mesopotamia (in Iraq today) is believed to be the first-ever civilization, established around 6000 years ago. It is pertinent to understand that city and formal politics are twins. All ancient cities/civilizations were mercantile in nature, and needed some basic laws as well as protection from invaders. For these two purposes, the phenomenon of ‘government’ appeared. Hence politics started in the shape of city states. Kings, mostly monarchs, continued to rule various parts of the world, also called empires, uptil the mid-18th century, when Industrial Revolution took place in the heart of Europe.
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