Mubarak was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
Ethnic groups:99 per cent Egyptians, 0.9 per cent Nubians, 0.1 per cent Greeks
Establishment:Independence from the United Kingdom on February 28, 1922 –Became republic on June 18, 1953
Population:September 2010 estimate 79,089,650
Long ago, this Nile valley cradled and nourished one of the oldest civilisations in the world history. The longest history of ancient Egyptian civilisation exercised its profound influence on the west of mankind. As a first step, let us examine how geographical factors influenced to bring about the birth of this mighty civilisation.
The 1948 Arab’ Israeli War, known by Israelis as the War of Independence or War of Liberation was the first in a series of wars fought between Israel and its Arab neighbours in the long-running Arab-Israeli conflict.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Although his status as “leader of the Arabs” was badly damaged by the Israeli victory over the Arab armies in the Six-Day war and Egypt’s failure to win the War of Attrition against Israel, many in the general Arab population still view Nasser as a symbol of Arab dignity and freedom.
1948 Arab-Israeli war
Revolution of 1952
Thus, he immediately entrusted Zakaria Mohieddine with the task of drawing up plans for the takeover of the government by army units loyal to the association. On September 28, 1970, Nasser suffered a heart attack, he was immediately transported to his house and was pronounced dead soon after.
He led the Yom Kippur War of 1973 against Israel. On October 6, 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt’s crossing of the Suez Canal.
In addition to Sadat, 11 others were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, an Omani general, and a Coptic Orthodox bishop. Twenty-eight others were wounded, including Vice-President Hosni Mubarak, Irish Defence Minister James Tully, and four US military liaison officers. The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli after a fatwÄ approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman. Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed in April 1982.
Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force, serving as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rising to the rank of Air Chief Marshal. Mubarak was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
Camp David Accords
The two framework agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by United States President Jimmy Carter. The second of these frameworks, A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel, led directly to the 1979 Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, and resulted in Sadat and Begin sharing the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.
Little progress was achieved on the first framework however, A Framework for Peace in the Middle East, which dealt with the Palestinian territories.
The northern terminus is Port Said and the southern terminus is Port Tawfik at the city of Suez. Ismailia lies on its west bank, three km (1.9 mi) north of the half-way point.
When first built, the canal was 164 km (102 mi) long and eight m (26 ft) deep. After multiple enlargements, the canal is 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long, 24 m (79 ft) deep, and 205 metres (673 ft) wide as of 2010It consists of the northern access channel of 22 km/14 mi, the canal itself of 162.25 km/100.82 mi and of the southern access channel of nine km/5.6 mi.
It is single-lane with passing places in Ballah By-Pass and in the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal. In general, the Canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. The current south of the lakes changes with the tide at Suez.
The canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority (SCA) of the Arab Republic of Egypt. Under international treaty, it may be used “in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag.
Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following 13 days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
1948 Arab-Israeli war
The war commenced upon the termination of the British Mandate of Palestine and the Israeli declaration of independence on May 15, 1948, following a period of civil war in 1947′ 1948. The fighting took place mostly on the former territory of the British Mandate and for a short time also in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Lebanon.