Guess for CSS-2018

Guess for CSS-2018

English Essay

1. Menace of corruption in Pakistan. How to eradicate that?

2. Will rising wave of extremism lead Pakistan to some serious disaster?

3. Pariah status of women has become a serious obstacle to the rapid progress of the world in many aspects.

4. Unless you have a uniform system of education in the country, you can never expect high literacy rate. Discuss with special reference to Pakistan.

5. CPEC is categorized as a game-changer not only for Pakistan but also for China and Central Asian States.

6. Judiciary in Pakistan has been playing a very important role in shaping up the political scenario of the country.

7. According to your viewpoint, how the influence of Western media has hurt the underdeveloped countries?

8. Is the world heading toward Third World War?

General Science & Ability

Q1. (a) What is the importance of Ozone? Explain the causes and effects of ozone depletion.
(b) Explain the concepts of Greenhouse effect and global warming. Describe some disadvantages of global warming.
(c) How acid rain is generated? Describe its nature, effects and remedial measures.
(d) Photochemical smog is highly hazardous to human health. Explain the process of photochemical smog formation, its chemistry and effects.

Q2. (a) Explain the causes and effects of waterlogging. How can it be treated?
(b) What do you understand by the term 3R? Explain recycling with example.
(c) How incineration helps in managing solid waste? Explain its advantages and disadvantages.
(d) What do you know about rocks and their types? Differentiate between rocks and minerals.

Q3. (a) Explain the structure and function of human heart with labelled diagrams.
(b) Pancreas is a double gland which not only helps in maintaining sugar level but also in digesting food. Explain.
(c) Kidneys are organs of excretion as well as osmoregulation. Justify.
(d) Explain the blood groups in human beings.

Q4. (a) Differentiate between animal cell and plant cell with diagrams.
(b) What are vertebrates? Explain the features of various classes of vertebrates.
(c) Explain the structure and function of human eye.
(d) How proteins are important for human body? Explain.

Q5. Write a note on the following:

(a) Montreal Protocol (b) Vitamins (c) Endocrine System (d) Remote Sensing

Q6. (a) What do you understand by the terms Solar Eclipse and Lunar Eclipse? Explain with diagrams.
(b) Describe rotation and revolution of earth and their effects.
(c) What is solar system? Explain the characteristic of:
I. Sun II. Jupiter III. Mars IV. Venus

Q7. (a) Differentiate between weather and climate. What are some practical suggestions to slow down the process of climatic change.
(b) Define pesticides. Explain the classification and health effects of pesticides.
(c) Explain the ionic bond with examples.
(d) What are semiconductors? Explain Band Theory to explain the semiconductors.

Q8. (a) What is balanced diet? Explain the importance of carbohydrates and fats.
(b) Describe the traditional and modern methods of food preservation.
(c) What are food preservatives? Describe their types and effects on human health.
(d) Explain the concept of biofuels, their types and applications.

Q9. Write notes on the following:

(a) Antibiotics and Vaccines (b) GPS & its applications
(c) Optical Fibers (d) Social media websites

Q10. (a) What are earthquakes? Explain the types of seismic waves and measurement of earthquake.
(b) What is information system? How can it be developed? Give its types also.
(c) Define and differentiate between different types of network.
(d) Artificial intelligence is the miracle of science. Justify by explaining AI.

General Ability

Q1. The sum of the ages of a girl and her brother is 26 years. Three years ago her age was 4 times the age of her brother. Find the present ages of girl and her brother.

Q2. I drove south for 6km, then turned left and drove for 2k,m then turned right and drove for 4km, again turned right and drove 2km. How far am I from starting point?

Q3. A and B start walking in opposite directions. A walked 2km and B walked 3km. Then each turned right and walked 4km. Then they turned right. A walked 3km and B walked 2km. How far distance apart are they at the end?

Q4. If 12 years are added to 2/3 age of Rani, she will be three years older than today. What is Rani’s present age.

Q5. A can do a job in 4 days, while B can do the same job in 5 days. How long will it take to do the same job by both of them together?

Q6. If the difference between the measures of the two smaller angles of a right triangle is 8 degrees, what is the measure, in degrees, of the smallest angle?

Q7. Six students in a class failed in geometry. This represents of the class. How many students passed the course?

Q8. Ages of the father and his son are in the ratio 10:3. Eight years later, their ages will be in the ratio 12:5, find their present ages.

Q9. A boy had twice as many sums wrong as right, if he had 24 sums in all, how many of them were wrong?

Q10. When three coins are tossed the probability (3 heads)?

Q11. Discuss the following

i. An equation ii. Linear equation iii. Parallel lines iv. Rate v. Direct proportion

Current Affairs

Q1. “US President Donald Trump’s Policy on South Asia and Afghanistan is often dubbed as anti-CPEC policy”. Critically examine the statement.

Q2. Aggressive Indian posture towards Pakistan is manifested in Indian hegemonic designs in the region. How Pakistan can protect its national interest in this context?

Q3. Critically evaluate the impacts of Trump’s decision to shift US embassy to Jerusalem on Middle East security.

Q4. Sino-US conflict over freedom of navigation has the potential to snowball into a regional and, potentially, a global conflict. Explain the genesis of the conflict and its impacts on international security.

Q5. Pakistan’s Afghanistan policy has not yielded any dividends so far. How Pakistan can protect its interest in Afghanistan?

Q6. Brexit, Catalonia and the rise of populist nationalism has endangered the European integration. What future do you see for regionalism in particular European Integration?

Q7. Growing tensions between Iran and Saudi Arabia over regional issues have posed significant policy challenges to Pakistan to maintain cordial relations with both Iran and Saudi Arabia. Discuss.

Q8. How rise of populist nationalism in Asia, Europe and North America is hampering efforts to curb the carbon emissions?

Pakistan Affairs

Q1. The invasions by the Muslim conquerors in the Subcontinent proved vital for the ideology of Pakistan. Discuss with special reference to creation of a separate homeland for the Muslims.

Q2. Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi was the one who recognized the separate entity of the Muslims as a nation in the Subcontinent. Had his services not been there, Islam would have been eliminated from the Subcontinent four to five hundred years back. Evaluate the statement.

Q3. The successors of Aurangzeb could not handle the vast Mughal Empire due to their incapability. In the light of this statement, write a comprehensive note on the decline of Muslim rule in the Subcontinent.

Q4. Write down the social, cultural and religious impacts of the Muslim rule on the lives of natives of the Indian Subcontinent.

Q5. Write a comprehensive note on the main issues which caused the natives of India to fight a war against the Britishers in 1857. Why Indians lost that war and what consequences they had to face after this effort which proved good for nothing?

Q6. Aligarh, Deoband and Nadwa proved really very important for the renaissance of the Muslims in the Subcontinent. Elaborate in the light of the circumstances where the Muslim’s life was really grinding to a halt.

Q7. Jinnah and Iqbal always stressed that Muslims of the Subcontinent were entirely having a distinguished identity and they were entirely a separate nation. Discuss the statement with the extracts from the speeches of both leaders.

Q8. What were the initial stumbling blocks for the newly-formed State of Pakistan?

Q9. Whenever the military coups have been staged in Pakistan, those have been provided justification through judiciary. Discuss the statement in the light of all the concerned incidents which have taken place in this regard.

Q10. The debacle of East Pakistan took place with a lot of Indian intrigues but a lot of inabilities, disequilibrium in sharing power and sharing benefits and mishandling the issue by the ruling elite of West Pakistan were also there as serious causes. Highlight these shortcomings. Also discuss and analyze whether Pakistan has learned some lesson from this disastrous incident?

Q11. Pakistan would have faced severe circumstances after 9/11, had it not maintained its foreign policy in the proper direction. Critically evaluate.

Q12. There has been a rampant extremism in Pakistan in the last two decades. Enunciate the causes and suggest suitable measures to tackle this situation.

Q13. Today, there is no uniform system of education in Pakistan. How the situation has evolved in this context and what can be done to ameliorate the situation?

Q14. In your opinion, what has caused severe energy crisis in the country? How the situation can become better in this regard?

Q15. CPEC and OBOR are considered the game-changers for Pakistan’s economy. Write a comprehensive note on the challenges to this project. Explain in detail the prospects of CPEC for Pakistan.

Islamic Studies

Q1. Causes of fundamentalism and extremism and suggestions to curb them.

Q2. Minorities’ rights in Islam

Q3. Ijtehad

Q4. Holy Prophet (PBUH) as peacemaker

Q5. Culture and civilization and impacts of Western civilization on Islam

Q6. The Day of Judgement

Q7. Impacts of worship system of Islam on human life


Q1. How can one explore the possibilities of gender dynamics in unilineal, matrilineal or patrilineal descent?

Q2. Draw parallels between functionalism and structural-functionalism.

Q3. Write a note on politics of identity and how it can end up paving the way for institutionalization of leadership in various tribes?

Q4. How is urbanization going to affect the world in the twenty-first century? Elaborate from the perspective of Pakistan.

Q5. What major Anthropological Research Techniques are used to collect field data? Discuss how Qualitative Research is different from Quantitative Research?

Q6. What are the main barriers to cultural change in Pakistan?

Q7. What is the anthropological definition of religion and its major functions? Also discuss how religion is used in advancing political gains by various social groups.

Q8. Write short notes:

a. Linguistic anthropology and forensic anthropology
b. Parallel Cousin and Cross Cousin c. Ethnography and Ethnology
d. Interview and Questionnaire e. Sororal Polygyny & Sororate
f. Ethnocentrism

Business Administration

Q1. (a) What does PLC stand for? Illustrate various types of PLC patterns and show how sales and profits are linked.
(b) Briefly explain why you would or may have to develop a marketing plan to match the PLC of a given product?

Q2. Define market segments and individual marketing. Briefly explain four major segmentation variables. What are the key elements which ensure that market segmentation is useful?

Q3. What is adaptive mode? How organizations become adaptive in today’s highly-dynamic business environment?

Q4. A company wants to identify market segments which it can serve effectively. With appropriate examples, explain the bases of consumer market segmentation that the company could utilize.

Q5. Write and discuss the stages in new product development process.

Q6. (a) How do training, development and learning programmes contribute to organization’s success?
(b) Is having the “right” people working for companies one of the main reasons for their success? What are some other reasons for carefully selecting employees?
(c) Suppose you are a supervisor, what errors might you make when preparing the performance appraisal on a clerical employee? How could you avoid those errors?

Q7. Describe decision-making, and the process view of operations management. Why are both these views useful in studying the field of operations management?

Q8. (a) What is capital budgeting? What steps are involved in this process?
(b) What is the significance of investment analysis in the capital budgeting process?

Q9. (a) What is meant by ‘ratio analysis’ in Financial Management? Classify different types of ratios with examples?
(b) State the importance of financial statement analysis. Explain any one technique of financial statement analysis. What are the horizontal and vertical analyses? What are the limitations to ratio analysis method?

Q10. If you invest Rs.5,000 today at a compound interest rate of 9%, what will be the future value after 35 years?


Q1. Define criminology. Discuss its space, nature and application (significance + practical value) for preventing crimes in our society.

Q2. Define crime. What are various criminological perspectives on crime and criminality? Explain in detail.

Q3. Critically analyze the sociological theories of crime.

Q4. Juvenile justice system is full of lacunas and it is not in consonance with the international standards. Give pragmatic suggestions to improve it.

Q5. Define Probation & Parole system. Under what circumstances, they are granted? What are points of difference between the both?

Q6. Write short notes:

(a) Criminal Law (b) Criminal, kinds of criminals (c) Sociological explanation of crime

Q7. Critically analyze the criminal justice system in Pakistan and give pragmatic suggestions to improve it.

Q8. Write notes on the following:
Stop & frisk operation, Arrest & seizure, Interviewing & interrogation (Ethical Guidelines)

Q9. Discuss the role and functions of national crime control agencies (FIA, NAB, ANF)in Pakistan.

Q10. Write notes:

(a) Money laundering (b) White-collar crime (c) Cybercrime
(d) Organized crime & corporate crime (e) Crime & deviance, Crime & Sin
(f) Crime as a social problem



Q1. Explain diagrammatically how increase in price generates income and substitution effect for a normal good?

Q2. Compare and contrast the equilibrium of the firm under perfect competition and monopolistic competition. Explain with suitable diagrams.

Q3. Define and explain the concept of AFC, AVC, ATC, and Marginal Cost with the help of diagram. What is the significance of the point where Marginal Cost is equal to Average Cost? Describe this relation mathematically as well as graphically.

Q4. Explain consumer equilibrium by utilizing Cardinal and Ordinal Approaches. Which approach is better to establish consumer equilibrium and why?

Q5. Use the Keynesian Cross to predict the impact of:

(a) An increase in government purchases (b) An increase in taxes
(c) An equal increase in government purchases and taxes

Q6. Differentiate and explain monetary policy multiplier and fiscal policy multiplier?

Q7. What is national income? Define and explain its different concepts.

Q8. Explain how the process of Creation of Credit Money is adopted in the banks?

Q9. Differentiate between Balance of Payments and Balance of Trade. What are the transactions that are recorded in the current account and the capital account?

Q10. Discuss the cost and benefits of foreign economic assistance and give some suggestions for the solution to the foreign debt problem.

Q11. Explain the theory of comparative cost by David Ricardo.

Q12. Briefly explain major components of Aggregate Demand equation (function) and aggregate supply. Also explain how an increase in net exports may change equilibrium of the economy. Discuss its impacts.

Q13. What is the equation of exchange and the velocity of circulation? What assumptions are necessary to make this equation the quantity theory of money?

Q14. Write short notes :

(a) Phillips Curve (b) Monetary Base (c) Crowding out
(d) Difference between Income Inequality and Poverty
(e) Net domestic product and gross domestic product
(f) Consumer and producer surplus
(g) Supply Curve of the firm under perfect competition and monopoly


Q1. How agricultural development is based on ‘Green Revolution’? Discuss how it brought revolutionary changes in agricultural development?

Q2. Differentiate between Economic Development and Economic Growth. Also discuss the modern concept of Economic Development.

Q3. What is the difference between collective and cooperative farming? Explain the advantages and causes of failure of cooperative farming in Pakistan.

Q4. Present a detailed account of Pakistan’s experience of privatization.

Q5. Energy crisis in Pakistan has slowed down the growth process. In your opinion, how the energy shortage can be overcome?

Q6. Agricultural development is indispensable to industrial development in Pakistan. Discuss this statement.

Q7. “Public sector enterprises are white elephants for the economy.” Discuss how privatization can play a positive role in addressing this issue?

Q8. Keeping in view the land reforms in Pakistan, comment as to how much these are significant to achieve the targets of decentralization of wealth and reducing income inequalities.

Q9. Explain factors responsible for deterioration of terms of trade for Pakistan. How Pakistan can improve its terms of trade?

Q10. Critically evaluate the imposition of tax on the agriculture sector. Discuss how it can help improve tax base in Pakistan

Q11. Domestic resource development is a strategy for economic development. Suggest measures to improve the taxation culture in Pakistan.

Q12. Critically evaluate major monetary and fiscal measures taken in Pakistan to promote agricultural development.

Q13. Explain the major monetary and fiscal measures to promote industrial development in Pakistan.

Q14. Write short notes:

(a) Trends in foreign remittances (b) Interest-free banking in Pakistan
(c) Absolute and relative poverty (d) Features of Least Developed Economies
(e) Lorenz curve (f) Growth vs. Distribution

Environmental Sciences

Q1. History of environmental thoughts:

(a) Agriculture and industrial revolution, impacts of these on environment.
(b) Agenda 21, Rio Summit (+10, +20)
(c) Our Common Future 1987
(d) Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) & Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Q2. What is global warming? What are the indicators of climate change? Explain some adaptation measures in this regard.

Q3. What are the drivers and effects of climate change? Write some mitigation measures to minimize the effects of climate change.

Q4. What is the principle of Sustainable Development? Explain the goals, principles and characteristics of Sustainable Development.

Q5. Why Kyoto Protocol is not delivering proper results, regarding the control of GHG’s (Greenhouse Gases)? Explain the mechanism of working of Kyoto Protocol with special emphasis on CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)?

Q6. Critically analyze the Environmental Policy of Pakistan 2005. Explain the mechanism of implementation and obstacles in the way of its implementation?

Q7. Discuss the following:

(a) National Environmental Act 1997 (b) Hospital Waste Management Rules 2005
(c) National Climate Change Policy 2012 (d) National Drinking Water Policy 2009

Q8. What is Environmental Impact Assessment? Explain its aims, objectives and procedures. How it is different from SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment)?

Q9. What is meant by Solid Waste? What are different types of Solid Waste? Explain different approaches used for Solid Waste Management?

Q10. Write notes:

(a) GIS (b) Remote sensing (c) Pollution control technologies
(d) ISO 14000 (e) WaterLogging and salinity (f) Acid rain
(g) Deforestation (h) Ecological restoration (i) Carbon footprints
(j) Sustainable cities or sustainable urbanization (Carrying capacity)

Forestry & Agriculture

Q1. Growing use of pesticides and fertilizers is posing a great threat to natural ecosystem? What alternative approaches can be used to avert this damage and to improve crop productivity?

Q2. Rural uplift is necessary to alleviate poverty in Pakistan. Being a leading sector in rural economy, what measure can be introduced in the present agriculture marketing system for better financial health of farmers?

Q3. Water is one the most important natural resources for crop growth. What are major constraints in improving efficient utilization of this scarce resource in agriculture sector? Suggest measures to improve water-use efficiency in Pakistan.

Q4. Discuss scope and future prospects of horticulture sector in Pakistan?

Q5. What is Biological Nitrogen Fixation? What are different factors affecting BNF?

Q6. What is Range Management? Discuss an effective strategy for efficient utilization of rangelands of Pakistan.

Q7. Biodiversity is a great gift of nature. But various natural and manmade activities are damaging these assets. Discuss various measures to preserve biodiversity with special reference to Pakistan.

Q8. Write notes on:

(a) Agro forestry (b) Rain-water harvesting (c) Silviculture
(d) Soil fertility (e) Soil salinity

Gender Studies

Q1. Evolution of gender studies and its multi-disciplinary nature.

Q2. Gender as Social Construction (Link to Nature/Nurture)

Q3. Queer theory and its contributions.

Q4. Radical Liberal and Marxist/ Socialist Feminism.

Q5. 1st and 2nd wave Feminism including Suffragist Movement.

Q6. UN Conferences on Women.

Q7. Development Theories

Q8. WID, WAD, GAD and autonomy integration debate

Q9. Political quotas for women.

Q10. Issues with women’s political participation and understanding, and challenges to democracy

Q11. Status of women health.

Q12. Causes and remedies of violence specifically structural and direct violence

History of USA

Q1. War of Independence was the culmination of the coercive and inflexible British policies. Elaborate.

Q2. What are the implications of Donald Trump’s new Afghanistan policy for geo-strategy of region in general, and Pakistan in particular?

Q3. Delineate the major factors responsible for the growing ‘sectional divide’ between the Northern and Southern states of USA that finally escalated to the American Civil War.

Q4. Westward expansion was critical for evolution of USA as a major power. Focus on the causes and impacts of westward expansion?

Q5. Delineate the key themes of Trump’s doctrine of principled realism? Elaborate your answer with examples from recent US foreign policy interventions.

Q6. Draw a critical appraisal of evolving US role in the United Nations. Quote relevant examples to substantiate your answer.

Q7. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists was a key debate in the formative phase of the United States. Discuss key differences of both groups and analyze how it helped shape the course of US political history.

Q8. Write short notes:

(a) Missouri Compromise 1820 (b) Martin Luther King
(c) Separation of Power and System of Checks & Balances
(d) Cuban Missile Crisis

History of India and Pakistan

Q1. “The real Mohammaden conquerors of India were not Arabs, but Turks.” Give your view of the statement and back it with strong arguments.

Q2. Do you consider Iltutmish to be the real founder of the Delhi Sultanate? Build a detailed argument backed with historical facts.

Q3. Give an account of the Mansabdari system under the Mughal Empire.

Q4. What factors led to the evolution of the English East India Company from a trading concern to a political force in India?

Q5. It was the inability of Indian National Congress to understand the legitimate demands of the Muslims contained in the Fourteen Points of the Quaid-e-Azam that led to the partition of India. Comment.

Q6. Highlight the issues that delayed the formulation of Constitution of Pakistan during its first decade of independence.

Q7. Lack of will to find a political solution to genuine economic, political and ethnic grievances led to the separation of Pakistan’s East wing from its West. Elaborate.

Q8. Trace the history of Kashmir issue. How can the issue be solved?

International Law

Q1. What are material and formal sources of international law? What are the differences between the two? Explain with examples.

Q2. How International Law has developed over the years? Which theories and writers, in your opinion, have special place in the development of I. Law and why?

Q3. How treaties are formed and interpreted? Also explain reservation and its effects on applicability of treaties.

Q4. Traditionally states have been treated as only subjects of I. Law. However over the period of time, few new subjects have evolved. What is their status as subjects? Discuss the debate between subjects and objects of I. Law.

Q5. Write short notes:

(a) Recognition of States and Governments (b) Neutrality
(c) State Responsibility (d) Insurgents
(e) S.S-lotus case

Q6. UN Charter has emphasized on settlement of disputes through peaceful means. Quote the relevant law and explain any 3 modes in detail.

Q7. How does the state sovereignty and jurisdiction extend into the sea? Explain with relevant law.

Q8. Discuss the law of war in the light of UN Charter and Geneva Convention 1949.

Muslim Law & Jurisprudence

Q1. Write short notes :

(a) Islamic law of contract (b) Role of Imam Shafi in development of Fiqh
(c) Issues of Islamic banking (d) Post-divorce maintenance
(e) Classification of crimes under Islamic law

Q2. Quran and Sunnah are treated as primary sources of Islamic law. Explain their mutual relationship and role as sources of law.

Q3. MFLO, 1961, has brought about fundamental changes in certain aspects of Islamic law. Do you agree? Explain in detail two provisions of MFLO, which in your opinion, are most significant.

Q4. Divorce is one of the most controversial topics in Islamic law due to difference in interpretation. Explain your viewpoint and also explain its different modes in detail.

Q5. Write a detailed note on nature clarification and state law on dower.

Q6. Who is a legal heir? How Shias and Sunnis classify them? Also explain different rules pertaining to succession in Islam.

Q7. What are the factors which courts consider while appointing a guardian. Explain different types of guardian and issues of child custody.

Q8. How Muslim scholars have developed international law over the years. What are its different subjects and sources? Explain. Is there any code of conduct during war as per Islamic Law? If yes, what?

International Relations

Paper 1

Q1. Emerging multipolarity in international system endangers international peace and security. Comment.

Q2. Balance of power has been a major feature of International Relations. Explain the future of Balance of Power in the 21st century.

Q3. Is globalization a reversible phenomenon? Critically evaluate the rise of populist nationalism in the West and its implications on globalization.

Q4. Diplomacy has been a major tool for peacemaking in human history. Rise of multilateral diplomacy in the 21st century is often attributed to liberalist ideas. Explain the different types of diplomacy in modern age. Discuss the major functions of diplomats in the age of globalization.

Q5. Critics of China’s Belt and Road Initiative call this yet another form of neo-imperialism while proponents consider it another attempt to foster regional and global integration. Analyze BRI in the light of existing political economic theories.

Q6. Define Foreign Policy. Distinguish between Foreign Policy and Foreign Relations. What are methodical differences between the two?

Q7. International Law is often considered a weak set of rules often ignored by Great powers. Discuss the importance of International Law in International Relations.

Q8. Write short notes:

(a) Social Constructivism (b) Asymmetric War
(c) Neo Marxism (d) Reforms in UNSC

Paper II

Q1. How the theory of communism shaped the Cold War developments between the USSR and the US?

Q2. Clash of Civilizations is often associated with the rise of Nationalism in Europe, North America and elsewhere. Give arguments in favour of, or against.

Q3. In what ways US Pivot to Asia resembles with Truman Doctrine.

Q4. Syria represents the diminishing role of US across the globe. However, at the same time, the Syrian war also symbolizes the absence of a benevolent hegemon that would dictate peace. Critically examine the impacts of the Syrian crisis on US foreign Policy.

Q5. Pakistan-India relations have undergone a drastic change since the Mumbai Attacks. Is the threat of India-Pakistan nuclear war a myth? If yes, or if no, why?

Q6. Pakistan and Afghanistan share historical, economic, territorial, religious and cultural relations. These linkages however failed to develop into a strategic partnership. Suggest the measures Pakistan needs to adopt to foster deeper and closer relations with Afghanistan.

Q7. There has been a growing consensus in international community on the need to abolish the nuclear weapons. Explain the different steps taken at international level to reduce the dangers of use of nuclear weapons by states.

Q8. Write short notes:

(a) Cuban Missile Crisis (b) New World Order
(c) Hydro-politics between India and Pakistan (d) End of History

Political Science


Western Political Thought
Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hobbes, Locke

Muslim Political Thought
Farabi, Ibn-Khaldun, Allama Iqbal


Islamic State, Rights and duties, Political parties, Pressure groups, Legislative, Executive and Judiciary, Forms of government (Monarchy, Democratic, Presidential and Parliamentary), Fascism and Communism



1. USA
Senate, system of checks and balances, American president, Salient features of the US constitution

2. UK
Salient features, British cabinet and PM, Why kingship is not abolished in England

3. France
French President, Main features of French Political system, French Judicial System


4. Turkey
Role of army in political system of Turkey, Role of Ataturk in building modern Turkey, Turkish Political system, Grand National Assembly

5. Iran
Is Iran an ideal Islamic state of modern age, Salient features of political system

6. India
President, Secularism in India, Salient features of Indian political system, reasons why Indian democracy is stronger than any other country of the region, Lok Sabha

7. China
Communist Party of China, characteristics of Chinese political system, National People’s Congress of China

8. Pakistan
Comprehensive and critical analysis of 1956, 1962 and 1973 Constitutions, 18th Amendment, Political culture of Pakistan, Political developments and the role of civil and military bureaucracy

Public Administration

Q1. Briefly describe the planning machinery in Pakistan. Differentiate between NEC (National Economic Council) and ECNEC (Executive Committee National Economic Council). Discuss the role of NEC in post-18th amendment scenario.

Q2. Parliamentary oversight of the executive is an important aspect of any democratic system. How this role is being exercised by the Parliament in Pakistan? What recommendations would you present for making this role more effective? Is the judicial verdict on ‘Panama case’ an aberration of Parliamentary oversight?

Q3. ‘Accountability and Control are the essential aspects of Public Administration in a democratic government. What is meant by executive control with reference to accountability? Suggest means for strengthening the system of administrative accountability in Pakistan.

Q4: What reforms, if any, are needed following the Weberian model of bureaucracy. Do you think its characteristics are still relevant to changing Public Administration needs and should it be maintained?

Q5. Domestic public policy is implemented not merely by government but by governments. The administration of a single public policy often involves a medley of funding sources and public administrators interacting through all the three levels of governments. Discuss.

Q6. Intergovernmental relationships mandate an important structural and operational mechanism. Please comment on the strength of inter-government relations in financial, legal, political and administrative aspects that exist at federal, provincial and local government level in Pakistan.

Q7. Evaluate the role of media and civil society institutions in improving governance. Quote specific examples from Pakistan.

Q8. Discuss the salient features of the system of Public Personnel Management in Pakistan and critically examine the need to evolve Human Resource Management in Public Sector of Pakistan.

Q9. Governmental budgets remain an area of general concern as well as controversy. Considerable attention is given to taxation and other sources of governmental revenues. Discuss the federal budget process in Pakistan with special focus on tax-to-GDP ratio imbalance. What structural and procedural adjustments are required in the budget-making process to improve this imbalance.

Q10. Write short notes:

(a) Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and its relevance to Public Administration
(b) Judicial activism
(c) Leadership theories to Public Administration and their application
(d) Governance Model of Public Administration


Q1. Why is research essential to the scientific enterprise and what are the principal theoretical methods available to sociologists in the study of social life? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each?

Q2. Explain “organismic theory”. Who are the proponents of this theory? Also, discuss Ibn Khaldun’s contribution to sociology.

Q3. Define and differentiate social and cultural change. Discuss in detail the accelerating and decelerating factors of social change. Discuss the impediments to change with reference to the resistance to change in Pakistani society and culture.

Q4. Discuss Durkheim’s theory of deviance and compare it with Robert K. Merton’s theory of deviance.

Q5. Discuss in detail the differences between quantitative and qualitative research? Which research design you would personally prefer and why?

Q6. Define cultural invasion? Explain in detail the role of technological innovation and mass media in the revolution of rising expectations and the disruption of traditional society of Pakistan.

Q7. Think about Globalization – is there a ‘political, economic and/or social structure at the global level, or is the world just characterized by random, chaotic flows?

Q8. Discuss the major contributions of Max Weber in understanding the society theoretically. Also discuss his theory of bureaucracy?

Q9. Critically evaluate:

(a) Feudal system in Pakistan (b) Issues of urbanization in Pakistan

Q10. What is a research design? What type of research design can be used for studying the problem of religious extremism in Pakistani society? Discuss with examples.

Q11. Define social institution. What is the significance of family, religion & education as institutions in the process of socialization? Explain your answer with examples.

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