In an unlettered society where one rarely comes across people genuinely into writing or reading and where books are sold not by content but by weight as a waste paper commodity and where bookstores are disappearing fast, getting converted into video shops or burger stands, the arrival of every single new book by a Pakistani author is freshening expression of a resolve not to give up the book culture.
This book is, perhaps, the first study of its own kind encompassing all media-related issues in our country and generating awareness of the vast legal framework available to the people as well as the media community on the rights and obligations of all in handling this important vehicle of public opinion and information. The author not only traces the historical evolution of this institution in Pakistan, but also brings out, with specific instances, the growing tendency for abuse of media-related freedoms.
Besides putting the media’s role in its perspective as the ‘fourth pillar’ of a democratic state, she has tried to clarify in common man’s language the much misunderstood concepts of freedom of speech, freedom of expression, defamation, contempt of court, cyber law, electronic media and social responsibility with comparative analyses of the laws on these issues in our own country and those in other countries.
Now, as in any other country in today’s world, our media is playing a pivotal role as a source of information on almost every aspect of our national life as also on issues and developments of national, regional and global importance across the globe in the context of their relevance to Pakistan. In many respects, information has never been so free presenting new challenges to the society as a whole and helping people discover new facts and hidden realities, while making governments more accountable.
All societies now recognise that free expression has its limits. The foremost challenge thus remains how the free media itself is using its newfound freedom in meeting its own obligations towards respecting the freedom of the public as individuals or even as groups or society as a whole. This book makes the case for the media’s responsibility in remaining within the limits of legal, moral, cultural and ethical norms of the society and also the need for promoting diversity, transparency, accessibility and accountability among fast-growing media corporations and the government agencies that regulate the media.
With more and more corporate conglomerates buying up independent news outlets, broadcasters are becoming less and less accountable to the public and as a consequence, fewer voices and perspectives are to be heard. An increasingly concentrated media ownership system in our own country has had a negative impact on the quality of news and information that we receive about the nation and the world. There are instances, globally as well as in our own country, of growing abuse of media power to influence the political and cultural scenes.
Those of us who remember the classic fairytale movie, ‘The Wizard of Oz’ might see in it some allegorical resemblances with the world of media in our times today. Its main character, Dorothy Gale, is a young, helpless, good-natured adopted orphan girl snatched up by a Kansas tornado and deposited in a fantasy land of witches. When she and her companions finally reach the palace of the Wizard, and in the main hall, a huge head faces them talking and breathing fire and smoke, and holding the terrorised but rapt attention of anyone who looks upon his face.
As in the ‘Wizard of Oz’ the people in our world today are transfixed on our own talking heads that come from our own Wizard boxes every day and night in regular news bulletins, including frequent breaking news every now and then. And the news media, especially the electronic media understands completely how much power they have over the minds of the masses, even those who say ‘they can’t trust the media.’ By using graphic images, focusing on everything they want you to see and hear, shaping events by reporting only on those that they choose, they control an empire that is actually a fourth pillar of the state. And, no wonder, they control our minds.
Though we have a voluntary code of ethics adopted since 1972, the performance of media in our country has yet to rise to the globally recognised standards of reporting with responsibility. Since 2002, we also have a statutory body, the Press Council of Pakistan, to ensure freedom of press in the country consistent with universally acclaimed professional and ethical standards relating to newspapers, news agencies, editors and journalists. There are reports that instead of seeking to reinforce the laws and ethical codes on such issues as morality, cultural propriety, plagiarism, fairness, etc, the Council, under pressure from newspapers, is seeking the repeal of defamation laws. That sounds odd for any democratic society where the press has to be both free and responsible.