Physiology or Medicine
Winners: William C. Campbell (Ireland) & Satoshi Omura (Japan) and Tu Youyou (China)
The first half of the Nobel Prize for Medicine 2015 was awarded to William C. Campbell and Satoshi Omura for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites. The second half went to Tu Youyou for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against malaria.
Did You Know? Tu Youyou became China’s First Nobel Laureate in Science.
Takaaki Kajita (Japan) & Arthur McDonald (Canada)
Professor Takaaki Kajita and Professor Arthur McDonald won the prize for physics for their discoveries concerning neutrinos flipping their flavours. Professor Kajita noticed that neutrinos switched between the flavours whilst in the Earth’s atmosphere, Professor McDonald then further discovered that on a journey from the Sun to the Earth, neutrinos changed their flavour from what data predicted.
Did You Know? Kajita and McDonald will share the prize of 8 million Swedish kronor ($964,342).
Winners: Tomas Lindahl (Sweden), Paul Modrich (USA) & Aziz Sancar (Turkey)
Lindahl, Modrich and Sancar worked out how cells repair faults that inevitably creep in when DNA is copied time and again, and mutations that arise under a barrage of environmental factors such as UV rays in sunlight.
Did You Know? The mechanisms discovered by the three newly-minted laureates seem to be almost universal, found in everything from bacteria to people.
Winner: Svetlana Alexievich (Belarus)
Svetlana Alexievich won the Nobel Prize for literature for her polyphonic writings which were described as “a monument to suffering and courage in our time”.
Did You Know? Alexievich is the first Belarusian to be awarded the prize and also the first journalist.
Winners: Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet (Tunisia)
The quartet was formed in the summer of 2013 when the democratisation process was in danger of collapsing. It established an alternative, peaceful political process at a time when the country was on the brink of civil war. It was thus instrumental in enabling Tunisia, in the space of a few years, to establish a constitutional system of government
Did You Know? The Quartet consists of the Tunisian General Labor Union, the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts, the Tunisian Human Rights League and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers.
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel
Winner: Angus Deaton (UK)
This Prize was awarded to Angus Deaton for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare. The Scottish-born academic’s work focuses mainly on how people distribute their money into savings or is spent. His work has stressed how each individual’s decisions affect the overall economy especially in the poorer countries of the world.
Did You Know? The Prize was created by the central bank of Sweden in 1968, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides on the recipients.
Note: All of the winners will receive their prizes at the Nobel ceremony on December 10th 2015 in Oslo and Stockholm.